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iasparliament
January 08, 2019
13 days
1918
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Gandhi Circuit

  • A project for “Development of Gandhi Circuit: Bhitiharwa-Chandrahia-Turkaulia under Rural Circuit theme of Swadesh Darshan Scheme” has been sanctioned in Bihar with central financial assistance.
  • The most famous Gandhian site in Champaran,Bihar is Bhitiharwa.
  • t is a place where Bapu (Mahatma Gandhi) set up a school and ashram in 1917.
  • Recently government has erected an ashram complex which includes a museum.
  • On April18, 1917, Mahatma Gandhi embarked on a journey from Motihari to Jasauli Patti in the then undivided Champaran district of Bihar.
  • During the journey Mahatma Gandhi was served an order by the British rulers at Chandrahia village, prohibiting him from traveling any further.
  • As a result, he had to return to Motihari, now headquarters of East Champaran district.

Heritage and Culture of Particularly Vulnerable Tribes Groups

  • The Ministry of Tribal Affairs is implementing a scheme namely “Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribes Groups (PVTG)” for the welfare of PVTGs. 
  • This is a demand driven scheme.
  • The scheme is flexible as it enables the States/Union Territory(UT) to focus on areas that they consider is relevant to PVTGs and their socio-cultural environment.
  • The scheme strives to retain the culture and heritage of the community by adopting habitat development approach.
  • Activities under the scheme include housing, land distribution, land development, agricultural development, animal husbandry, and construction of link roads or any other innovative activity meant for the comprehensive socio-economic development of PVTGs.

Leadership development measures for youth

  • Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Government of India has taken several initiatives towards increasing leadership skills among the youth of India.
  • Some of the programmes include National Programme for Youth and Adolescent (NPYAD) Scheme
  • The scheme has a component namely ‘Youth Leadership Personality Development Training’ to develop leadership qualities, national character  and personality development among the rural youth.
  • Nehru Yuva Kendra Sangathan conducts programmes such as Training on Youth Leadership and Community Developmen.
  • It also conducts Nationwide contest on Patriotism and Nation Building to develop leadership and increase leadership skills amongst the youth and to make them responsible citizens.

Vote on Account (VoA)

  • The Union Budget is nothing but a projected income and expenditure statement for the coming year.
  • As per the Constitution, all the revenue received and the loans raised by the Union government are parked in the Consolidated Fund of India (CFI).
  • Article 266 mandates that Parliamentary approval is required to draw money from the CFI
  • So the Budget has to be approved by Parliament before the commencement of the new financial year.
  • But the discussion and passing of Budget generally goes beyond the current financial year.
  • So a special provision called “Vote on Account” is used, where the government obtains the vote of Lok Sabha to withdraw money from CFI to keep the money flowing for the government’s day to day functions, until the Budget is passed. (Article 116).
  • e.g Salary to government employees, loan interest payments, subsidies, pension payments etc.
  • It is also used in the years where Lok Sabha elections are due.
  • But here vote on account is also presented along with minor policy changes, as it would be improper for the outgoing government to impose major budgetary constraints on its successor.
  • Such a measure that includes both short term expenditure and income part is called an Interim Budget.
  • The vote-on-account is normally valid for 2 months and is in operation till the full Budget is passed.
  • But during an election year, it may be extended for more than 2 months.
  • VoA is usually passed without much discussion as it typically does not seek funds for major projects or new initiatives.
  • It usually does not contain any direct tax proposals, as that requires amendments to the Finance Bill.
  • On indirect taxes though, there could be clarifications or minor tweaks.
  • On the downside, the country may lose crucial time on developmental projects during the hiatus after the vote on account.

X-Calibur telescope

  • It is a telescope that has been successfully launched recently by US scientists from the McMurdo Station in Antarctica.
  • It was launched on a helium balloon intended to reach an altitude of 130,000 feet i.e at nearly four times the cruising altitude of commercial airliners, and above 99 per cent of the Earth’s atmosphere.
  • It will analyse X-rays arriving from distant neutron stars, black holes and other exotic celestial bodies.
  • The prime observation target will be Vela X-1, a neutron star in binary orbit with a supergiant star.
  • Neutron stars are objects of very small radius (typically 30 km) and very high density, composed predominantly of closely packed neutrons.
  • Neutron stars are thought to be formed by the gravitational collapse of the remnant of a massive star after a supernova explosion.
  • It is the same process by which black holes are formed except that here the star is not massive enough to produce a black hole.
  • Supergiant stars are the largest stars in the universe. They can be thousands of times bigger than our Sunand have a mass up to 100 times greater.
  • The largest known supergiant star, VY Canis Majoris, is up to 2,100 times the size of the Sun.
  • Binary stars are two stars orbiting a common center of mass.

 

Source: PIB, The Hindu, The Indian Express

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