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Internal Security

January 11, 2018
9 months

Examine why an unreconciled LAC doesn’t see many violations, while a fully demarcated LoC sees numerous cease fire violations? (200 words)

 Refer – The Indian Express

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IAS Parliament 9 months


Demarcated LoC

·         Ceasefire Line Era - To settle border disputes between India & Pakistan in Jammu & Kashmir sector since 1948 war, a ceasefire line (CFL) was demarcated mutually.

·         CFL was marked on the maps and jointly surveyed by both the armies. 

·         This CFL, with minor variations, became the Line of Control (LoC) after the Shimla Agreement which followed the 1971 war.

·         Line of Control Era - LoC remained largely peaceful thereafter, until the worsening of internal security situation in J&K in the 90s changed it.

·         While things became peaceful again with the 2003 ceasefire, by late 2015, the LoC started heating up again with much ceasefire violations and soldier deaths.

Unreconciled LAC

·         The concept of “Line of Actual Control” (LAC) came about in a bilateral agreement in 1993.

·         Significantly, India and China have differing views on where the LAC lies and even its total perceived length by both sides are at a glaring variance.

·         Despite these confusing ground realities, the last ever violent clash recorded was in 1975.

LoC - LAC anomaly

·         While there is no clear LAC demarcation, military commanders concede that both sides understand and agree on the other’s perception for 95% of the LAC.

·         Also, the mechanisms for border management between India and China, has been well defined and formalised, which include ceremonial border gatherings.

·         Moreover, a lot of quiet informal strategic meetings, coordinated humanitarian assistance and disaster relief training exercises also happen regularly.

·         Contrarily, such structures haven’t evolved in the Indo-Pak LoC, mainly due to the mutual deep-rooted hostility between India and Pakistan.

·         Both armies perceive each other as cultural and historic enemies, which has been reinforced through current political narratives.

·         The fact that Pakistan is actively aiding militancy in Kashmir and the speculation that it is covertly sponsoring terrorism elsewhere in India only reinforces hatred. 

Way forward

·         The border ranks view stand-offs with the Chinese as a professional call of duty, but in the case of Pakistan, it is seen through an emotional and personal prism.

·         Reducing emotional rhetoric is indeed difficult but is crucial in easing tensions at the border, which both sides must realise.