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Prelim Bits 03-04-2018

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April 03, 2018

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal groups (PVTG)

  • PVTGs are less developed groups with in Tribal groups who need special and focused attention.
  • There are 75 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) notified as on date in the country.
  • The criteria followed for determination of PVTGs are as under:
  1. A pre-agriculture level of technology
  2. A stagnant or declining population
  3. Extremely low literacy
  4. A subsistence level of economy
  • The Ministry of Tribal Affairs is implementing a scheme namely “Development of PVTGs”.
  • The scheme covers the 75 identified PVTGs among Scheduled Tribes in 18 States/ UT of Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

  • It is a flexible scheme and covers funding for activities like housing, land distribution, land development, agricultural development, animal husbandry,
  • It also covers construction of link roads, installation of non-conventional sources of energy for lighting purpose, social security activity meant for the comprehensive socio-economic development of PVTGs.

National Culture Fund scheme (NCFS)

  • National Culture Fund (NCF) set up as a Trust under the Charitable Endowment Act, 1890 on 1996 by the Government.
  • The Fund aims at inviting the participation of the corporate sector, non-government organizations, private/public sector as well as individuals in the task of promoting, protecting and preserving India’s cultural heritage.
  • It enables institutions and individuals to support arts and culture directly as partners with its government.
  • It is managed and administered by a council headed by Culture Minister to decide the policies and an Executive Committee headed by Secretary, Culture to actualize those policies.
  • The projects under NCF cover both tangible and non tangible heritages.
  • Some of the successfully completed projects are Humayun Tomb, Shaniwarwada in Pune.

Sahara Desert

  • According to a study published in Journals of climate, the Sahara Desert has expanded by about 10 per cent since 1920.
  • Desert is defined by low average annual rainfall — usually 100 millimeters of rain per year or less.
  • The most notable expansion of the Sahara occurred in summer, resulting in a nearly 16 per cent increase in the desert’s average area.
  • Lake Chad, in the Sahel region, serves as a useful indicator of changing conditions along the border of the Sahara.
  • The study also examined conditions in the Sahel region, the transitional zone connecting the southern Sahara to the Sudanian Savanna.
  • The results suggest that human-caused climate change, as well as natural climate cycles, caused the desert’s expansion.
  • The geographic pattern of expansion varied from season to season, with the largest differences along the Sahara’s northern and southern boundaries.
  • The Sahara is the world’s largest warm-weather desert.
  • The desert covers large sections of Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Western Sahara, Sudan and Tunisia.

Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI)

  • SIDBI celebrated its foundation day today as day of Sampark (connect), Sanwad (interaction), Suraksha (security) and Sampreshan (disseminate) recently.
  • SIDBI was set up on 1990 under an Act of Indian Parliament,.
  • It acts as the Principal Financial Institution for Promotion, Financing and Development of the MSME sector as well as for co-ordination of functions of institutions engaged in similar activities.
  • SIDBI launched Samridhhi- the virtual assistant on banks revamped universal loan portal (www.udyamimitra.in) which will answer standard queries of aspirants 24*7.
  • A ‘Bankability Kit’ (brought in partnership with Bank of Baroda and IDBI Bank) was launched.
  • It is a step to look beyond financial literacy and be a trusted guide for aspirants and existing entrepreneurs to know entrepreneurial self, know banker & know banking.
  • Other Initiatives of SIDBI includes MSME Pulse-health tracker of MSME, CRISIDEX-to gauge the MSME aspirations and SMILE LOANS.

Bioluminscence

  • In 2016, blue waves were spotted in the Juhu beach, Mumbai.
  • Though popularly called blue waves, the rare natural phenomena are referred to as bio-luminescence.
  • Bioluminescence is the emission of light by an organism or by a laboratory biochemical system derived from an organism.
  • It results from a chemical reaction in which the conversion of chemical energy to radiant energy is direct and virtually 100 percent efficient.
  • The biological light, or bioluminescence, in the waves is the product of marine microbes called phytoplankton.
  • The presence of phytoplankton known as dinoflagellates in the water is the most common reason for marine bioluminescence.
  • Dinoflagellates have a tail-like structure called flagella that produces light when disturbed, stressed or in high-pollution levels.

Sand Fish

  • The sand fish is a small, robust lizard that prefers to stay under the sand rather than above it.
  • The name sandfish originated because of its ability to move through sand as if it were swimming.
  • A streamlined body and paddle like feet enable it to move through the sand as easily as a fish moves through water.

  • The species is generally found in the North African desert and also in Arabian Desert.
  • A species of sand fish is found in Rajasthan.
  • The sandfish is an insectivore that can detect vibrations the insects in its vicinity create while moving.

Map of the day

India Physical

  • Trans Himalayas lies to the north of Great Himalayas and are also called as Tibetan Himalayas.
  • Trans Himalayas includes Karakoram, Zaskar, Kailash and Ladakh ranges.
  • The Himalayan range includes
  1. Greater Himalaya or Himadri
  2. Lesser or Middle or Himachal Himalaya
  3. Shiwaliks or Outer Himalaya
  • Purvanchal (Purva – East; Chal- Mountains) includes Naga Hills, Patkai Bum, Mizo or Lushai Hills and Manipur Hills.
  • Garo, Khasi and Janitia hills are part of Shillong Plateau.

 

Source: PIB, The Hindu, Business Standard

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