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G.S II - Govt Policies & Interventions

New Rules for Utilisation of Funds under MPLADS

Why in news?

The central government recently revised rules governing the utilisation of funds under various central sector schemes (CCS), including the MP Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS).

What is the MPLAD scheme?

  • The MPLAD scheme is an ongoing Central Sector Scheme that was launched in 1993 by the then-Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao to provide funds to MPs to facilitate developmental works in their constituencies.
  • The Scheme enables the MPs to recommend works for creation of durable community assets based on locally felt needs to be taken up in their constituencies in the area of national priorities.
  • The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation has been responsible for the policy formulation, release of funds and prescribing monitoring mechanism for implementation of the Scheme.
  • A District Collector, District Magistrate or District Commissioner is the correct authority to implement MPLADS.
  • For municipal corporations, the Commissioner or Chief Executive Officer functions as the authority.

What are the key features of the scheme?

  • The MPLADS is a funded by Government of India and the annual MPLADS fund entitlement per MP constituency is Rs. 5 crore.
  • MPs are to recommend works costing at least 15% of the annual MPLADS entitlement for areas inhabited by SC populations and 7.5% for areas with ST populations.
  • A ceiling of Rs. 75 lakh is stipulated for building assets by trusts and societies subject to conditions prescribed in the scheme guidelines.
  • Lok sabha members can recommend works within their constituencies whereas elected members of Rajya sabha can recommend works within the state of election.
  • The nominated members of both the houses can recommend works anywhere in the country.
  • In case an elected MP wishes to contribute MPLADS funds outside the constituency or the State/UT, they can recommend work up to Rs 25 lakh in a financial year.

How is the scheme implemented?

  • The annual entitlement of Rs 5 crore shall be released, in two equal installments of Rs 2.5 crore each directly to the District authority of the nodal district of the MP concerned.
  • The role of an MP is limited to the recommendation of a project.
  • The onus is on the district authority to sanction, execute and complete the recommended project within a particular timeframe.
  • Projects under MPLADS
    • Durable community assets- Creation of durable community assets in infrastructure, electricity, drinking water, public health, sanitation, and education
    • Non-durable assets- The MP can make recommendations on non-durable assets only under special circumstances such as the provision of computers and books to schools or libraries, ambulances, assistance to bar councils and other matters, etc.
    • Natural disasters- MPs from non-affected States can also recommend projects in places ravaged by calamities like floods, cyclones, and earthquakes.

What is the status of MPLADS?

  • The programme was temporarily suspended from April 2020 to November 2021 since the funds were diverted to manage the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • In November 2021, the Centre restored the scheme and the MPs were given only Rs 2 crore for the remaining period of the fiscal year 2021-2022.
  • Around 53% of funds released by the Centre under the MPLADS have been utilised for development projects since 2019.
  • Official data shows that Rs 1,729.61 crore remain unspent with district authorities at present.

What were the recent changes made in the MPLADS rules?

  • According to the 2016 guidelines, funds released to district authorities under the MPLAD scheme were not lapsable.
  • The interest accrued on funds released to the district authority could be used for permissible works recommended by the concerned MP.
  • Under the new rules, MPs will no longer be able to use interest accumulated on MPLADS funds for development works.
  • The revised procedure requires these earnings to be compulsorily remitted to the Consolidated Fund of India (CFI).

The CFI includes all revenues received from direct and indirect taxes, interest earned and expenditure incurred by the government. A Parliament nod is needed to withdraw resources from the CFI.



  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/mplad-scheme-finance-ministry-new-rules-funds-interest-consolidated-fund-india-statistic/article65405403.ece?homepage=true
  2. https://vikaspedia.in/social-welfare/urban-poverty-alleviation-1/schemes-urban-poverty-alleviation/members-of-parliament-local-area-development-scheme


G.S II - Polity

Pardoning power - Constitutional and Statutory provisions

Why in news?

The Supreme Court has reserved orders on the question whether a Governor can refer the State government’s advice for granting remission to life convicts to the President for a decision.

What is Pardoning Power?

Pardoning power is commonly referred to as mercy or clemency power.

President –

  • Article 72 of the Constitution empowers the President to grant pardons to persons who have been tried and convicted of any offence in all cases where the:
    • Punishment or sentence is for an offence against a Union Law.
    • Punishment or sentence is by a court martial (military court).
    • Sentence is a sentence of death.
  • The pardoning power of the President is independent of the Judiciary. It is an executive power.

Governor –

  • Article 161 of the Constitution empowers the governor of a state to grant pardons, reprieves, respites and remissions of punishment or suspend, remit and commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against a state law.

The pardoning power of the governor differs from that of the President in following two respects.

  • The President can pardon sentences inflicted by court martial (military courts) while the governor cannot.
  • The President can pardon death sentence while governor cannot. Even if a state law prescribes death sentence, the power to grant pardon lies with the President and not the governor. However, the governor can suspend, remit or commute a death sentence.

What are the clemency powers of state and central government under CrPC?

  • The Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) provides for remission of prison sentences.
  • Under Section 432, the appropriate state government may suspend or remit a sentence, in whole or in part, with or without conditions to release of prisoners before they complete their prison terms.
  • Under Section 433, any sentence may be commuted to a lesser one by the appropriate government.
  • However, Section 435 says that if the prisoner had been sentenced in a case investigated by any agency under a Central Act such as CBI the State government can order such release only in consultation with the Central government.
  • In the case of death sentences, the Central government may also concurrently exercise the same power as the State governments to remit or suspend the sentence.

How remission under the CrPC is different from the constitutional power?

  • Under the CrPC, the government acts by itself.
  • Under Article 72 and Article 161, the respective governments advise the President/Governor to suspend, remit or commute sentences.
  • Though it is the decision of the government in either case, the Supreme Court has made it clear that the two are different sources of power.
  • Also the SC has upheld the validity of Section 433A of CrPC in which a person imprisoned for a life term cannot be released unless he had completed 14 years.

What is the issue in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case?

  • In September 2018, the State government invoked Article 161 of the Constitution so that the remainder of the life term of the 7 convicts be remitted to release them.
  • In this case the Governor has referred the question to the President.
  • This has raised constitutional question on whether the Governor can make such a reference to the President.
  • The other issue that arises is whether the primacy accorded to the Centre’s opinion under the CrPC can be extended even to remission that may be granted by the Governor under Article 161.




G.S II - India and its Neighborhood

Bangladesh’s Offer of Services at Chittagong Port

Why in news?

Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina offered India the use of the Chittagong Port and said the port would be of benefit to India’s northeastern States.

What is the Chittagong Port?

  • The Chittagong or Chhatogram port is one of the important seaports of Bangladesh, located in the region of Chittagong hill tracts.
  • It is the main seaport of Bangladesh and is located on the bank of the Karnaphuli River.
  • The port of Chittagong was known as Shetgang as early as the 4th century BC, and it received ships from the Middle East and China.
  • Almost 90% of Bangladesh's exports and imports are now handled by the Chittagong Port.
  • In the colonial era, the Chittagong Port was one of the largest ports of eastern India through which cargo was carried to the borders of Myanmar through railways and roadways.
  • Due to the sea port's close proximity with North-Eastern Indian states, the port facility has the potential to significantly boost economic activity in the North-East Indian states.

What is the impact of partition on the business in the Northeast?

  • India’s Northeast had easy access to the seaports, specifically Chittagong, in present-day Bangladesh via the Brahmaputra and Barak River systems before independence.
  • The tea, timber, coal and oil were transported through these rivers
  • The local-level border trade helped maintain undivided Assam’s status as the State with the highest per capita income till the early 1950s.
  • The volume of trade began dipping with the souring of ties between India and Pakistan (Bangladesh was East Pakistan then).
  • Later, the 1965 war cut the Northeast off and the movement of goods through the ‘chicken’s neck’, a narrow strip in West Bengal, became a costlier alternative.

The northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram share a 1,879 km border with Bangladesh.

What happened after Bangladesh was created?

  • The creation of Bangladesh with India’s help in 1971 did not translate into the revival of the traditional river and land trade and communication routes for the Northeast.
  • A degree of mistrust existed between the two countries because of the ‘Bangladeshi’ issue and camps established by myriad Northeast extremist groups in Bangladesh.
  • When Sheikh Hasina’s Awami League government took charge in 2009, the mistrust lessened as the land boundary agreement was signed in 2015.
  • From a bus service between Agartala and Kolkata via Dhaka to the movement of cargo on barges, trial runs and trans-shipments have been successfully conducted.

What does the Bangladesh PM’s offer mean?

  • The importance of the Chittangong port made the British administrators build the Assam-Bengal Railway route to ship goods to the remotest parts of the region.
  • The port would be of benefit to India’s northeastern States, particularly Assam,Tripura, Meghalaya and Mizoram.
  • India’s ‘Act East’ policy that focuses on the new sense of cooperation between the two countries can help the Northeast to explore the potential of economic activities.
  • With a special focus on railways and waterways, many of the pre-Partition trade routes are being revived.
  • Most of these roads lead to Chittagong port, which has historically been the largest and the most convenient for trade and commerce for the region.

What efforts were taken on the ground?

  • Multi-modal approach- A multi-modal connectivity approach has been felt for a long time because reopening the pre-Partition trade routes would reduce the cost and time of transportation for the Northeast and generates revenue for Bangladesh.
  • MoUs- In 2010, India and Bangladesh signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to allow for the use of Chittagong and Mongla Ports in Bangladesh for the movement of goods to and from India.
  • Bridge connection- In 2021, the Maitri Setu built over the Feni River was inaugurated that would reduce the distance between Tripura and Chittagong port to just 111 km.
  • Mizoram is keen on bridges across the Khawthlangtuipui river (Karnaphuli in Bangladesh) for faster access to the Chittagong port.
  • Multi-modal transit hub- The government is working on a multi-modal transit hub at Sabroom that can help goods reach the Chittagong port in a few hours.
  • Road connectivity- Road connectivity in Meghalaya’s Dawki, southern Assam’s Sutarkandi and Tripura’s Akhaura linking eastern and south-eastern Bangladesh is also being improved.
  • Transit of inland vessels- Under Indo-Bangladesh Protocol on Inland Water Transit & Trade involving the Brahmaputra, inland vessels of one country can transit through the specified routes of the other country.
  • The cargo ships from Bangladesh have reached Tripura through the Gomati River and Assam’s Karimganj via the Kushiara River.
  • BBIN- The Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, and Nepal Motor Vehicle Agreement (BBIN-MVA) is another key development that can enhance the trade potential of Bangladesh with India and Nepal and further to Bhutan once Bhutan formally joins the MVA.



  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/explained-will-the-northeast-benefit-from-bangladesh-offer-of-services-at-chittagong-port/article65413604.ece?homepage=true
  2. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/india/bangladesh-pm-sheikh-hasina-says-india-can-access-chittagong-port-to-enhance-connectivity/articleshow/91168933.cms
  3. https://www.dhakatribune.com/nation/2022/04/22/bogie-of-freight-train-overturns-in-chittagong
  4. https://www.news9live.com/knowledge/international-day-of-living-together-in-peace-2022-history-significance-and-all-you-need-to-know-170539?infinitescroll=1


G.S II - India and its Neighborhood

The Importance of Lumbini

Why in news?

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Lumbini, Nepal is full of symbolism and substance.

What does the visit symbolize?

  • Mr. Modi’s visit is a combination of personal desire and political and strategic goals.
  • Prime Minister’s visit also provides a moment for quiet reflection and a reiteration of the message of peace, compassion and non-violence preached by the Buddha.
  • The visit is also political and strategic and is an opportune time for India to do much more in the region.
  • During his visit, the Prime Minister is set to meet Nepali counterpart Sher Bahadur Deuba for bilateral talks.
  • The PM’s participation in “Shilanyas” ceremony of the India International Centre for Buddhist Culture and Heritage in the Lumbini Monastic Zone is also significant.
  • His visit is intended to celebrate and further deepen these time-honoured linkages that have been fostered through centuries and recorded in our long history of inter-mingling.

What is the significance of Lumbini?

  • The Lord Buddha was said to be born in 623 BC in the sacred area of Lumbini located in the Terai plains of southern Nepal.
  • The Indian emperor Ashoka had erected one of his commemorative pillars there.
  • The site is now being developed as a Buddhist pilgrimage centre, where the archaeological remains associated with the birth of the Lord Buddha form a central feature.
  • The complex of structures within the archaeological conservation area includes
    • the Shakya Tank
    • the remains within the Maya Devi Temple dating from the 3rd century BC to the present century
    • the sandstone Ashoka pillar with its Pali inscription in Brahmi script
    • the excavated remains of Buddhist viharas (monasteries) of the 3rd century BC to the 5th century AD
    • the remains of Buddhist stupas (memorial shrines) from the 3rd century BC to the 15th century AD
  • Both Lumbini and the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya are UNESCO World Heritage sites.
  • The first foreign monastery in Lumbini was built by a Vietnamese monk, Thay Huyen Dieu.
  • India does not have a monastery in Lumbini.
  • The largest monastery has been built by the Chinese who sponsor and support international conferences on Buddhism in Nepal as well as the massive celebrations on Buddhist festivals such as Vesak.

India is home to some of the most sacred sites of Buddhism:

  1. Lord Buddha’s enlightenment- Bodh Gaya
  2. Buddha’s first sermon- Sarnath
  3. Mahaparinirvana- Kushinagar
  4. Buddha preached for many years- Shravasti
  5. Others- Nalanda and Rajgir

What can India do at Lumbini?

  • Indian monastery- Mr. Modi’s visit is an opportune time to remedy the situation and announce the establishment of an Indian monastery in Nepal.
  • Development of Lumbini- India could assist in the development of Lumbini along with the international committee that has been set by the UN.
  • Buddhist circuit- There is a need to develop a Buddhist circuit with seamless connectivity and comfortable travel between the major pilgrimage sites in Nepal and India.
  • Infrastructure development- Speedy construction of the integrated check post would also boost tourism and the local economy.

What is the Buddhist centre whose foundation PM Modi laid in Lumbini?

  • The India International Centre for Buddhist Culture and Heritage in the Lumbini Monastic Zone in Nepal is expected to cost Rs 1 billion and take three years to complete.
  • The Centre will be constructed by the International Buddhist Confederation (IBC), New Delhi.
  • Once completed, the Centre will be a world-class facility welcoming pilgrims and tourists from all over the world to enjoy the essence of spiritual aspects of Buddhism.
  •  It will be a modern building, NetZero compliant in terms of energy, water and waste handling, and will house prayer halls, meditation centers, library, exhibition hall, cafeteria, offices and other amenities.

What can India do to develop a Buddhist circuit?

  • Master plan for Bodh Gaya- There is an urgent need to adopt a master plan and develop Bodh Gaya as like Lumbini.
  • Committee- A high-level coordination committee comprising representatives of State and Central governments as well as of foreign monasteries should be set up to resolve problems.
  • UNESCO WHS- Efforts should be made for the entire Buddhist circuit, namely Lumbini-Bodh Gaya-Sarnath-Kushinagar, to be declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site(WHS).
  • International conference- India can also take the initiative to organise an international conference on the development of the Buddhist circuit to give a sense of participation and ownership to Buddhist countries.
  • International museum- India can also establish an international museum of Buddhist tradition in Bodh Gaya and invite all Buddhist countries to participate.



  1. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/the-importance-of-lumbini/article65416797.ece
  2. https://indianexpress.com/article/india/pm-narendra-modi-nepal-visit-live-updates-buddhist-centre-deuba-7919233/
  3. https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/666/


G.S II - International Issues

Frustration in Okinawa islands

What is the issue?

Frustration still lingers in Okinawa even after 50 years of its reversion to Japan from US rule.

What is Okinawa?

  • Okinawa is an island group in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.
  • They are part of the larger Ryukyu Islands groups.
  • A prefecture in Japan is similar to states in USA and Provinces in Canada.
  • Japan is divided into 47 prefectures which rank immediately below the national government.

Okinawa Islands

What is the history behind Okinawa islands?

  • During WW2 - U.S. troops, in their push for mainland Japan, landed on Okinawa’s main island on April 1, 1945.
  • After an intense battle of 3 months Okinawa was sacrificed by Japan’s imperial army to defend its mainland.
  • The island group remained under U.S. occupation for 27 years until its return to Japan on May 15, 1972.

Why was Okinawa occupied?

  • U.S. military considered Okinawa’s strategically important to maintain its troop to deter Russia and communism in the region.
  • So while ending the 7 year U.S. occupation in Japan USA separated Okinawa and several other south western remote islands from the rest of Japan under San Francisco treaty in 1952.
  • U.S. military occupation of Okinawa helped Japan to address its worries about Russia and concentrate on the post-war economic surge lowering its defence spending.

How did this affect the Okinawans?

  • Under U.S. military occupation local Okinawan government had little decision-making power.
  • Demands for reversion to Japan rose in the late 1950s across Okinawa over the confiscation of local land for U.S. bases.
  • Many Okinawans demanded tax reform, wage increases and better social welfare systems to correct disparities between Okinawa and the rest of Japan.
  • But the delayed reversion, the heavy U.S. military presence and mismanaged development funds have hampered the island’s economic, educational and social development.

What are Okinawa’s main problems today?

  • The island is not free of military bases.
  • Under bilateral security pact majority of US Troops and military facilities in Japan are still stationed in Okinawa.
  • Okinawa’s average household income is the lowest and its unemployment is the highest of Japan’s 47 prefectures.
  • If land taken by the U.S. military is returned for other use, it would produce 3 times more income for Okinawa than the island now makes from bases.
  • Because of the U.S. bases, Okinawa faces noise, pollution, aircraft accidents and crime related to American troops.
  • The decision of central government of Japan to move Futenma air station within Okinawa instead of moving it elsewhere as demanded by many Okinawans.
  • The construction of a new runway at Henoko Bay off Okinawa’s eastern coast despite 72% opposition in Okinawa’s 2019 referendum citing environmental destruction and soaring costs.
  • Rapid deployment of Japanese missile defense and amphibious capabilities on Okinawa’s outer islands, including Ishigaki, Miyako and Yonaguni, which are close to geopolitical hotspots like Taiwan.

What are the implications?

  • All these has created resentment between Okinawa and the Japanese mainland.
  • There are complaints of discrimination and claims that Okinawans are forced to serve an expendable role to protect mainland Japan.
  • Some people have started calling for independence from Japan.



Prelim Bits

Prelim Bits 15-05-2022 & 16-05-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

Macolin Convention

The 12th meeting of Interpol’s Match-Fixing Task Force (IMFTF) concluded with a call for harmonised global efforts to curb competition manipulation and establishment of national platforms, as outlined by Macolin Convention.

It was the first major event held under the banner of its newly created Financial Crime and Anti-Corruption Centre (IFCACC).

  • The Macolin Convention is the other name for the Council of Europe Convention on the Manipulation of Sports Competitions.
  • It is a multi-lateral treaty aimed at checking match-fixing.
  • It is the only rule of international law on the manipulation of sports competitions.
  • It centralizes and analyses information on irregular and suspicious trends.
  • It came into force in 2019, and has been signed by 32 countries and ratified by 7 countries.

Interpol’s Match-Fixing Task Force  

  • The INTERPOL Match-Fixing Task Force (IMFTF) was created in 2011.
  • It brings together law enforcement agencies around the world to tackle match-fixing and corruption in sport.
  • It focuses on sharing experiences and best practices and acts as a platform for investigations and international case coordination.
  • Members - It has 100 member units, with more than 150 national points of contact worldwide.
  • The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is a member of the IMFTF.
  • Tools - Specific tools developed by INTERPOL are available to law enforcement worldwide, dedicated to data collection on sport corruption (project ETICA) and financial crimes analysis (FINCAF).


  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/interpols-match-fixing-task-force-calls-for-harmonised-global-efforts-to-curb-competition-manipulation/article65407783.ece
  2. https://www.interpol.int/en/Crimes/Corruption/Corruption-in-sport
  3. https://www.coe.int/en/web/sport/t-mc

Cause and Effect of Rising Inflation

Retail Inflation had grown by 7.8% in April, 2022. This is at its highest in the last 8 years, and almost twice the Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI's) target.

Causes of Rising Inflation

  • The war in Ukraine and the associated inflation via higher prices of crude oil are a significant contributor to the April’s high inflation data.
  • But, the headline inflation, which is calculated using the Consumer Price Index (CPI), has been above the 4% mark since 2019-20.  
  • The CPI has different categories with varying weights.

Category of the CPI


Food Items

46% of the index

Fuel & Light

7% of the index

Core Inflation (All other items)

47% of the index

  • In 2020-21, when the pandemic hit the economy, there was a 7.3% spike in food prices and even core inflation rose by 5.5%. This spiked the overall inflation.
  • In 2021-22, the year when the global economy started recovering sharply, even though food price inflation moderated to 4%, fuel prices rose by 11.3% and core inflation went up to 6%.
  • In the current FY 2021-22, it is estimated that all three components will experience an inflation rate of 6% or more.

Effects of High Inflation

  • In the short term, inflation creates winners and losers. But in the eventual analysis, everyone suffers if it stays persistently high.
  • It reduces purchasing power of the people.
  • The eventual fallout of reduced purchasing power will reduce the overall demand for goods and services of the consumers.
  • Typically, non-essential demands such as a vacation get curtailed while households focus on the essentials.
  • It harms savers and helps borrowers.
  • Inflation helps the government meet debt obligations.
  • It also allows the government to meet its fiscal deficit targets.
  • It worsens the exchange rate. High inflation means the rupee is losing its power and, if the RBI doesn’t raise interest rates fast enough, investors will increasingly stay away because of reduced returns.
  • It leads to expectations of higher inflation. Persistently high inflation changes the psychology of people. People expect future prices to be higher and demand higher wages.

The way out is for the RBI to raise interest rates in a credible fashion. The difficulty is that raising interest rates at the current juncture, when growth is iffy, could lead to concerns of stagflation.


  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/rising-inflation-cause-effect-explained-7915202/
  2. https://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/111314/what-causes-inflation-and-does-anyone-gain-it.asp

Infrastructure Investment Trusts

  • Regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), the Infrastructure Investment Trusts (InvITs) are investment instruments that work like mutual funds.
  • InvITs can be treated as the modified version of Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) designed to suit the infrastructure sector.
  • It is a vehicle that is designed to pool money (small sums) from several investors to be invested in income-generating assets.
  • They are mostly structured as trusts, and an independent trustee holds assets on behalf of unit holders.
  • An InvIT consists of four elements: Trustee, Sponsor(s), Investment Manager and Project Manager.
  • Sectors - InvITs could be set up for sectors defined under the infrastructure as per RBI guidelines.
  • So far, developers engaged in the road, power transmission, gas pipelines and tower transmission have formed InvIT.
  • REITs and InvITs - REITs and InvITs are conceptually like mutual funds, where a sponsor raises capital and invests it in infrastructure or real estate projects.



REITs comprise a portfolio of commercial real estates; a major portion is already leased out.

InvITs comprise a portfolio of infrastructure assets such as highways and power transmission assets.

REITs are investment vehicles that own and manage investment grade and income-producing real estate properties (such as offices, malls, industrial parks, hospitality, etc.)

InvITs are investment vehicles that invest in infrastructure projects (such as roads or highways).

REITs must be publicly listed.

InvITs can be publicy listed, private listed or private unlisted.

REITs provide stable income and yield as 80% of REIT assets are income-generating assets with long-term rental contracts.

InvITs’ cash flows are less certain as they are dependent on multiple factors, including the capacity utilisation of the underlying assets and scalability of tariffs.

REITs are more accessible to small investors and have higher liquidity due to lower unit prices and trading lots.

InvITs have a bigger trading lot size and thus somewhat poor liquidity.

REITs own the property leased out and their underlying assets see growth in value over time and have high terminal value.


REITs have greater visibility of growth, which can be achieved by redeveloping existing assets, new construction, and acquiring completed leased assets.

For InvITs, growth depends on the successful acquisition of concession assets through a bidding process.


InvITs comprise concessions where the projects are returned to the authority or rebid post the concession period.

  • Working - A REIT/InvIT is established as a trust settled by the sponsor under the Indian Trusts Act, 1882 and the trust deed registered in India under the Registration Act, 1908.
  • Also, a Certificate of Registration as REITs and InvITs needs to be obtained from the SEBI.
  • Distributions by REITs and InvITs are based on Net distributable cash flows (NDCF), unlike companies where dividends are based on profits.
  • These distributions are declared and made at least,
    1. Once every 6 months for publicly offered REITs and InvITs and
    2. Once a year for privately placed InvITs.
  • Related Links - Marquee Institutional Investors


  1. https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/blexplainer/all-you-need-to-know-about-invits-and-infrastructure-funding/article65403672.ece
  2. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/definition/infrastructure-investment-trusts

RNA Granules to Treat Neurodegenerative Disorders

  • In the cytoplasm of a cell, there are structures made of the messenger RNA (mRNA), and the proteins known as RNA granules.
  • Unlike other structures in the cell (such as mitochondria), the RNA granules are not covered and confined by a membrane.
  • This makes them highly dynamic in nature, thereby allowing them to constantly exchange components with the surrounding.

Under normal conditions, the RNA granules are present in the cytoplasm at low numbers.

But, they increase in number and size under stressful conditions including diseases.

  • Stretches - The presence of stretches containing repeats of certain amino acids is a defining feature which does not change from one organism to another of the RNA granule protein components.
  • Such stretches are referred to as low complexity regions.
  • Repeats of arginine (R), glycine (G) and glycine (G) - known as RGG - are an example of low complexity sequence.
  • Protein synthesis - mRNAs are converted to proteins (building blocks of the cell) by the process of translation.
  • RNA granules determine mRNA fate by deciding when and how much protein would be produced from mRNA.
  • Protein synthesis is a multi-step and energy expensive process.
  • Therefore, a common strategy used by cells when it encounters unfavorable conditions is to shut down protein production and conserve energy to deal with the stressful situation.
  • RNA granules help in the process of shutting down protein production.
  • Some RNA granule types (such as Processing bodies or P-bodies) not only regulate protein production but also degrade and eliminate mRNAs, which in turn helps in reducing protein production.


RNA granule



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IAS Parliament Website Introduces the UPSC Current Affairs Session. If the Person is Willing to Prepare for a UPSC IAS or other Competitive Exams. Our Website Collecting the Daily UPSC Current Affairs from Different sources on Medium like Newspapers, Articles, Podcasts, and many Resources that covered the Complete data for IAS UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam.

UPSC Current Affairs Plays a Major Role as an Internal Part of most Common Public Service Examinations. And the Who can Prepare well to Score Good Marks and This Current Affairs will be the most Common Deciding Factor of the Aspirants in the Examination Results.

Current Affairs Refers to the Events, Actions, Government Announcements, Latest News Updates, Articles, national and International Importance that are more relevant to Competitive Examinations.

This UPSC Current affair Refers to Two Parts:

Static: The Static UPSC Current Affairs Syllabus will not Change. For Example, National Movements, historical Events and Features of India, etc.

Dynamic: This Section contains the Current Affairs and its syllabus will change daily based on the daily newspapers, magazines, articles, press releases Etc.

Shankar IAS Academy’s Best Initiative Website to Download UPSC Study Materials is called IAS Parliament. This Forum has to update Daily UPSC Current affairs and Prelims Bits every day. Aspirants should download it in PDF format also.

This Invention and our approach to Current affairs help aspirants to cover more topics to appear in prelims and Mains Exams and get succeeded.

Thereby IAS Parliament website is more helpful:Thereby IAS Parliament website is more helpful:

  • To Find out different Current Affairs articles that can be converted to an MCQ or Q&A.
  • To Complete the Module of Daily UPSC, Current Affairs will be Offered in PDF.
  • It Helps to prepare for the civil services exam and Attend Self-Assessment Mock Tests.
  • Apart from General Studies, Current Affairs helps to prepare for Essays as well.
  • learning the Tricks of answering writing and Reading the Current Affairs which may differ from others.
  • Encountering the surprise element that the UPSC Current Affairs throw every year. Get prepared for the most current affairs and answer it in UPSC Examination.
  • Helps to Complete the UPSC Exams in a Particular Time.

This Call Out of Current Affairs has Five Parts:

Features: The Civil Service Examination has become More Effective, especially in 2010 after Changing the Syllabus. Our Institution Selects the 4 to 5 Topics in Major UPSC Current Affairs section to Analyse and Understand the core reason for the issue which may help aspirants to write answers in the mains Examination.

Mains Current Affairs QA: This Section Helps aspirants to Collect Descriptive Questions and Answers based on the Latest developments and Current News. We provide additional information about the Current Affairs based on our Aspirant Needs.

Prelims Bits QA: This Section Contains the Objective questions that will help to test the Knowledge level of the Aspirants. We should update the answer file the next day with a detailed Explanation. This type of process will improve the Awareness of UPSC's Current Affairs and their Importance.

Allied Current Affairs QA: This part Contains the UPSC General Studies QA and other Mock Test Regarding the Allied Current Affairs topics like Environment Current Affairs, Polity Current Affairs UPSC, Geography Current Affairs on UPSC, Economy Current Affairs on UPSC and Many Magazine and Latest News Related Questions and Answers.

Instructions to Aspirants: We Support our Candidates to Follow Study and Revise the UPSC Current Affairs Regularly through our IAS Parliament Website. In that, we can help you to Cover the Entire Syllabus which is helpful to aspirants to reach their Successful Goals in UPSC Examinations.