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Conference of Parties (COP 27) Part - 2

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November 26, 2022

Why in news?

The annual Conference of Parties (COP) of UNFCCC concluded its 27th edition at Sharm El Shiekh, Egypt.

To know about COP 27 Part – 1, click here

What about the role of India in COP 27?

India is the third-largest greenhouse gas emitter in the world.

cop27

Long Term-Low Emission Development Strategy (LT-LEDS)

  • India announced its LT-LEDS, a roadmap to achieve net-zero emissions by 2070.
  • The plan focuses on strategic transition of high-emission sectors and a discussion of India’s climate adaptation needs.
  • India is the 58th country to submit its plans to the UNFCCC.

In Our LIFEtime campaign

  • It was jointly launched by India and UNDP to encourage youth between the ages of 18 to 23 years to become message bearers of sustainable lifestyles.
  • It also aims to foster responsible consumption patterns and influence the lifestyle choices of the younger generations to make them Pro-Planet-People.

Lifestyle for Environment (LiFE)

  • The concept of Lifestyle for Environment (LiFE) was introduced by Indian PM during UNFCCC - COP26 at Glasgow in 2021.
  • LiFE is an international mass movement to protect and preserve the environment.
  • LiFE envisions replacing the prevalent 'use-and-dispose' economy with a circular economy.

Leadership for Industry Transition (LeadIT) Summit

  • It was launched by Sweden and India at the UN Climate Action Summit in 2019 and is supported by the World Economic Forum.
  • India and Sweden hosted the LeadIT Summit 2022 at COP27.
  • The LeadIT initiative focuses on low carbon transition of the hard to abate industrial sector.
  • It gathers countries and companies that are committed to action to achieve the Paris Agreement.

MoEFCC – UNDP Compendium

  • India launched the MoEFCC – UNDP Compendium “Prayaas Se Prabhaav Tak - From mindless consumption to mindful utilization’’ on the sidelines of COP27.

BASIC Ministerial Meet

  • Ministers of Brazil, South Africa, India and China (BASIC Countries) pledged their full support for substantial progress towards the establishment of a finance mechanism for Loss and Damage.
  • The principle of Common But Different Responsibilities (CBDR) and respective capabilities was emphasised.

Common But Different Responsibilities (CBDR)

  • CBDR was formalized in international law at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro.
  • The principle balances both the
    • need for all states to take responsibility for global environmental problems
    • need to recognize the wide differences in levels of economic development between states

Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC)

  • Mangrove Alliance for Climate (MAC) is an intergovernmental alliance that works on a voluntary basis for planting, conserving and restoring mangroves.
  • Members - MAC is led by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Indonesia and includes India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Japan, and Spain.
  • Aim - To educate and spread awareness worldwide on the role of mangroves in curbing global warming and its potential as a solution for climate change

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Efforts taken by India

According to the Climate Change Performance Index 2023, India has been ranked 8th out of 63, thanks to its low emissions and the increasing use of renewable energy.

  • Net zero - India’s long term goal is reaching net-zero by 2070.
  • The National Hydrogen Mission launched in 2021 aims to make India a green hydrogen hub.
  • The country also has clean energy plans such as 20% ethanol blending with petrol to burn less fossil fuel by 2025
  • The electric vehicle project has been on the government’s focus for at least five years.
  • Updated NDCs

2015 NDC

Updated NDC

  • Cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil sources to reach 40%
  • Reduce the emissions intensity of GDP by 33 to 35 % compared to 2005 levels
  • Creation of additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover
  • India now stands committed to reduce Emissions Intensity of its GDP by 45% by 2030, from 2005 level
  • Achieve about 50% cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030

 

What should be India’s actions in the coming decades?

  • Sectoral transformations - Electricity and industry sectors which together account for over three-fourths of India’s CO2 emissions needs to be prioritised.
  • Investment in research and innovation - Multiple technologies in the energy and industry sectors need to be explored and scaled up.
  • Innovation in business models is equally important to push low-carbon technologies.
  • Adaptation and resilience - There is a need to strengthen basic infrastructure such as disaster-resilient buildings for better disaster response.
  • The capabilities of individuals and communities needs to be strengthened to adapt to the long-term impacts of climate change.
  • Carbon pricing - Creation of a domestic carbon market must be given priority.

cop

What are the major misses of COP27?

  • Mitigation - An inclusion of a stronger mention of the goal of pursuing the 1.5 degree Celsius target was a major missing.
  • The only decision in this regard was to continue the discussions on a work programme to urgently scale up mitigation action.
  • Adaptation - Developing countries, who are more vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, have often argued that adaptation is not given sufficient attention.
  • About one-third of the world, including about 60% of Africa, is not equipped with early warning and climate information systems.
  • Developing countries have been demanding that at least half of climate finance should be directed towards adaptation projects.
  • Finance - The developed countries have not yet delivered on their promise to mobilise USD 100 billion every year, which should have happened in 2020.

The next conference (COP 28) will be hosted by Dubai in 2023.

 

References

  1. The Indian Express│COP-27 and its dialogue with world
  2. Livemint│MoEFCC – UNDP Compendium
  3. PIB│LeadIT Summit 2022
  4. PIB│BASIC Ministerial Meet
  5. Moneycontrol│India’s LT-LEDS is a commendable start
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