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May 16, 2023

More research in quantum physics in recent times have shown that the fermi energy are significant and produce high energy.

- Fermi energy is defined as the highest occupied energy level of a material at
__absolute zero temperature (-273º C or 0K).__ - In other words, all electrons in a body occupy energy states at or below that body's Fermi energy at 0K.
- It is an energy difference of the kinetic energy of a system containing fermions.
- Fermi energy is
for each solid.__constant__

- Fermion is any member of a group of subatomic particles having odd
(spin 1/2, 3/2).__half-integral angular momentum__ - Fermions mainly include
along with electrons, protons, and neutrons.__quarks and leptons__ - Fermions obey
, which means that when one swaps two fermions, the wave function of the system changes sign.__Fermi-Dirac statistics__ - Fermions obey the
- no two fermions can exist in the same quantum state at the same time.__Pauli exclusion principle__

- Fermi level is the measure of the energy of the least tightly held electrons within a solid.
- It is the surface of that sea at absolute zero where no electrons will have enough energy to rise above the surface.
- The fermi energy levels enable us to
- Calculate the density of electrons
- Number of holes in the material
- Relative proportion of holes and density with respect to temperature

- Fermi energy is
- Applied to Determine the electrical and thermal characteristics of solids
- Important in nuclear physics to understand the stability of white dwarfs
- Used in semiconductors and insulators
- Used to describe insulators, metals, and semiconductors

**References**

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