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Guru Tegh Bahadur

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April 13, 2023

Why in news?

April 11 of every year is observed as the Parkash Purab of Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur and this year marks his 400 parkash purab celebration.

Who is Guru Tegh Bahadur?

  • Guru Tegh Bahadur is the 9th of 10 Sikh Gurus (1664–75).
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur is preceded by Guru Har Krishan Sahib and succeeded by Guru Gobind Singh Sahib.
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur was born on 1621 in Amritsar, Punjab, India and died on November 1675 in Delhi.
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur was second Sikh martyr, Guru Arjan being the first sikh martyr.





Guru Nanak Dev

1469 to 1539


Guru Angad Dev

1539 to 1552


Guru Amardas Sahib

1552 to 1574


Guru Ram Das

1574 to 1581


Guru Arjan Dev

1581 to 1606


Guru Har Gobind Sahib

1606 to 1644


Guru Har Rai Sahib

1644 to 1661


Guru Har Krishan Sahib

1661 to 1664


Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib

1665 to 1675


Guru Gobind Singh Sahib

1675 to 1708

  • Early life - The Guru was born in Amritsar in 1621 to Mata Nanki and Guru Hargobind, the 6th Sikh guru.
    • Guru Hargobind introduced the concept of warrior saints.
  • Sant Sipahi - Is a Sikh that aims to become both spiritually and martially skilled as per the teachings of the 6th Sikh Guru, Guru Hargobind.
  • A Sant Sipahi is meant to embrace Sikh religious and spiritual philosophy while being prepared to use necessary violence to defend the rights of the innocent.
  • Tyag Mal - Tegh Bahadur was originally named Tyag Mal  but was later renamed Tegh Bahadur after his gallantry and bravery in the wars against the Mughal forces.
  • At the age of 13, his heroic swordsmanship in a battle against a Mughal chieftain earned him the name, Tegh Bahadur (Tegh means sword in Punjabi)
  • Sikh Guru - After Guru Ram Das, the 4th Sikh guru, the guruship became hereditary.
  • He became the 9th Sikh guru after Har Krishan, who has the shortest tenure among all the Sikh Gurus, passed away in Delhi in 1664.
  • Guru Gobind Singh - Guru Gobind Singh, the son of Guru Tegh Bahadur was born in Patna in 1666.
  • Nirbhau & Nirvair - He questioned the tradition of worshipping at the graves of pirs and faqirs and urged his followers to be Nirbhau (fearless) and Nirvair (without envy).
  • Wider audience - His sermons, delivered in a mix of Sadukhri and Braj languages, were widely understood from Sindh to Bengal.
  • Concept of One God - He often alluded to Panchali (Draupadi) and Ganika in his preaching and declared that Hindustan could regain its piety if it took refuge in one God.
  • Execution - Aurangzeb ordered the public execution of the Guru on November 11, 1675 after the Guru refused to embrace Islam.
  • Gurdwara Sis Ganj - On the site of his execution, Gurdwara Sis Ganj was built in 1783.

Sri Gur Bilas Patshahi Dasmi is a biography of Guru Gobind Singh by Kavi Sukha Singh written in 1797

Quick facts

  • The Nanakshahi calendar is a tropical solar calendar used in Sikhism.
  • The calendar is based on the "Barah Maha" a composition composed by the Sikh gurus reflecting the changes in nature conveyed in the twelve month cycle of the year.
  • Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th and last of the personal Sikh Gurus, known chiefly for his creation of the Khalsa (the Pure) the military brotherhood of the Sikhs.



  1. The Indian Express│ Guru Tegh Bahadur
  2.  The Britannica│Guru Tegh Bahadur


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