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India’s Effort Towards a Greener World

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August 31, 2021

What is the issue?

Despite challenges, India is setting a global example in meeting its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC)

What is INDC?

  • An INDC is a public pledge from a country on how it plans to play its part in post-2020 collective action on climate change.
  • These contributions are to be achieved before 2030.
  • It was adopted at  UNFCCC  COP21 in Paris in December 2015
  • India committed to achieve the following three targets(INDC)
    1. India’s greenhouse gas emission intensity of its GDP will be reduced by 33-35 % below 2005 levels by 2030.
    2. 40 % of India’s power capacity would be based on non-fossil fuel sources.
    3. India will create an additional ‘carbon sink’ of 2.5 to 3 billion tons of Co2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030.

What is India’s progress with respect to the targets?

  • Reduced the emission intensity of GDP by 24% between 2005-2016
  • Produced 38.18% of electricity from non-fossil fuel-based sources by November 2020.
  • These targets were achieved with only 2% out of the U.S.$100 billion committed to developing nations in Copenhagen (2009)
  • India’s per capita CO2 emissions is 1.6 tonnes/person in 2012 which is less than the world average.
  • By December 2020, India was the only G20 nation compliant with the agreement
  • India has been ranked within the top 10 for two years consecutively in the Climate Change Performance Index

What is the progress of other countries?

  • China, the world’s largest GHG emitter  targets carbon neutrality by 2060
  • U.S. rejoined the Paris Agreement and committed to reach net-zero emissions economy-wide by 2050
  • But at the current rate, both China and the U.S. could emit 5times more than India in 2030

What efforts have been taken by India?

  • India is implementing an extensive renewable energy expansion programmes to achieve 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by 2022 and 450 GW by 2030.
  • Government announced several green measures, including
    • $26.5-billion investment in biogas and cleaner fuels
    • $3.5 billion in incentives for producing efficient solar photovoltaic (PV) and advanced chemistry cell battery
    • $780 million towards an afforestation programme
  • Unnat Jyoti by Affordable LEDs for All (UJALA) scheme , the world’s largest zero-subsidy LED bulb programme for domestic consumers  has been implemented
  • India provided leadership for setting up the International Solar Alliance, a coalition of solar-resource-rich countries
  • India initiated the Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure (CDRI), a multi-stakeholder global partnership to promote the resilience of infrastructure systems to climate and disaster risks

Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure is a partnership of governments, United Nations agencies, multilateral development banks, the private sector, and knowledge institutions

 

Source: The Hindu

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