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Prelim Bits 01-11-2021 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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November 01, 2021

Dairy Sahakar Scheme

Union Minister of Cooperation launched the “Dairy Sahakar” scheme of the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC).

  • The overall objectives of the Dairy Sahakar scheme are
    1. Doubling the farmers’ income and
    2. Atmanirbhar Bharat.
  • Dairy Sahakar with a total investment of Rs. 5000 crore will be implemented by NCDC under Ministry of Cooperation, to realize the vision, “from cooperation to prosperity".
  • Under Dairy Sahakar, financial support will be extended by NCDC to eligible cooperatives for activities such as
    1. Bovine development,
    2. Milk procurement,
    3. Processing, quality assurance, value addition, branding, packaging, marketing of milk and milk products,
    4. Transportation and storage of milk and milk products,
    5. Exports of dairy products.
  • There will also be a convergence with various schemes of Government of India and/or of State Government/UT Administration/Development agencies /multilateral assistance/CSR mechanism is encouraged.

Milu Deer

The comeback of Milu Deer from the brink of extinction marks a rare success for China's conservation efforts.

  • Milu deer (Elaphurus davidianus) is a rare and endangered species.
  • Also known as Pere David's deer, these animals were on the verge of disappearing towards the end of the 19th century.
  • Habitat - Milu deer is native and endemic to the river valleys of China.
  • They live in natural, open-range habitats, especially in the wetlands. They forage on grass and water plants.
  • They particularly love rolling about in the mud, especially during the mating season, which makes the land easier for farmers to cultivate.
  • Threats -
    1. Hunting for their meat,
    2. Loss of wetland habitat and
    3. Illicit mining and logging have fragmented reserves and left endangered animals marooned in "forest islands".
  • IUCN - Extinct in the Wild

Milu Deer

Climate Equity Monitor

Climate Equity Monitor is an online dashboard that went live recently.

  • India’s Climate Equity Monitor (CEM) will assess equity in climate action, inequalities in emissions, energy & resource consumption across the world, and ongoing climate policies of several countries.
  • Its focus on equity and climate action from a data and evidence-based perspective will encourage a vigorous discussion on this crucial issue and engage experts from all countries.
  • The website has been conceptualized and developed by independent researchers from India, not only but also,
    1. Climate Change Group, at the M.S Swaminathan Research Foundation (MSSRF), Chennai, and
    2. Natural Sciences and Engineering department at the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) Bengaluru.
  • Principles - CEM is aimed at monitoring the performance of Annex-I Parties under the UNFCCC (developed countries) based on the foundational principles of the Climate Convention, namely
    1. Principle of Equity (Equitable sharing of the global carbon budget) and
    2. Principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR-RC).
  • The performance and policies of the Non Annex-I Parties (developing countries) will be also provided for comparison.
  • Focus - Existing “tracking” websites on climate policies are based in the global North and routinely do not address the crucial aspects of equity and differentiation.
  • The developers of this dashboard have taken this initiative to build awareness, especially among the public of the global South, that climate action is a global collective action problem.
  • The website is intended to debunk the narrative that focuses attention continually on what developing countries must do, constantly demanding greater commitment and action from them.

Sagar Nidhi

A Union Minister visited Indian Subcontinent’s Pioneer Research Vessel Ship “Sagar Nidhi” at Chennai Port.

  • Sagar Nidhi is India’s ice-class Ocean Research Vessel (ORV) operated by National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai.
    • The 4 vessels under NIOT are ORV Sagar Nidhi & Sagar Manjusha, Coastal Research Vessels (CRVs) Sagar Tara & Sagar Anveshika.
  • Sagar Nidhi is the first Indian flagged research ship that reached the 66°S latitude [Antarctic waters], witnessing nature’s harshest conditions.
  • The vessel is capable of carrying out geo-scientific, meteorological and oceanographic research.
  • It is designed with blue-water capability with ranges of up to 10,000 nautical miles for voyages lasting up to 45 days.
  • Sagar Nidhi plays an important role in exploring the ocean resources and participation in search and rescue operations, especially its importance for implementation of Deep Ocean Mission.

Research Vessel

  • Research Vessel (Ships) is an important tool for ocean research, development of ocean technology and Ocean Survey of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and deep oceans for minerals and energy.
  • Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) has the mandate of providing weather, climate, Ocean and seismological services and to harness living and non-living resources.
  • So, MoES has 6 ships - Sagar Nidhi, Sagar Manjusha, Sagar Kanya, Sagar Sampada, Sagar Tara & Sagar Anveshika.

India’s Ocean Resources

  • India has an EEZ of about 2.37 million square kms wherein India enjoys the exclusive legal right to utilize all living and non-living resources.
  • Apart from this, India has been allotted 75000 square kms in the Central Indian Ocean, 10000 square kms in the Southern Indian Ocean by the International Seabed Authority.
  • These areas are rich in minerals like Manganese, Cobalt and Nickel.

Accidental Deaths and Suicides Report 2020

The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) has released the Accidental Deaths and Suicides report, 2020.

While road accidents and related deaths fell in the pandemic year, the number of deaths by suicides rose by 10% from 2019.

Accidental deaths

  • Accidental deaths fell by 11% from 2019 to 2020 to 374, 397, the lowest figure since 2009.
  • Road closures and restrictions on movements due to the lockdown likely had a significant impact on this trend since road accidents make up 40% of all accident deaths.

Suicidal Deaths

  • The number of deaths by suicide per lakh population in 2020 stands at 11.3%, up from 10.4% in 2019 and the highest since 2010 (11.4%).
  • The ASDI report classifies suicides, among other categories, on the basis of profession.
  • The NCRB omitted a chapter on Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) in the 2020 edition of its report, without stating any reason.
  • Daily wage workers made up the largest proportion of people who died by suicide in the country in 2020 at 24.6%
  • 2020 was a year marked by a sudden call for lockdown with 4 hours’ notice, leading to distress to daily wage workers, a very large portion of whom are migrants, struggling to return home and then earn an income.
  • Other occupations - After daily wage workers, the percentage share in total deaths by suicide by occupation, in decreasing order, went from
    1. Housewives (14.6%),
    2. Self-employed persons (11.3%),
    3. Professional/salaried persons (9.7%),
    4. Farmers/cultivators (7%) and
    5. Retired persons (1%).
  • The ‘other’ category made up 13.4% of all suicides.
  • Students - Suicidal deaths among students increased 21.20%, the highest year-on-year percentage increase of all the occupation categories.
  • The share of students in total deaths by suicide in the country also increased from 7.4% last year to 8.2% in 2020. (Highest proportion of deaths by suicides among students ever.)  
  • Self-employed - Deaths by suicide in the ASDI category ‘self-employed’ increased by 7.67% from 2019 to 2020.
  • Agricultural labourers - Number of agricultural labourers who died by suicide in 2020 was 18% higher than in 2019.
  • Most of these deaths were among those whose main source of income comes from labour activities in agriculture or horticulture.
  • Also, landless agricultural labourers who didn’t benefit from income support schemes (such as PM Kisan) may have faced higher levels of distress during the pandemic.
  • However, among landowning farmers (farmers who cultivate their own land), with or without the help of other workers, the number of suicides dropped 3.7% during the pandemic year.
  • The worst among States continues to be Maharashtra (4,006 suicides in the farm sector). MH saw a 15% increase in farm worker suicides.
  • Suicides by cause - The ASDI report also lays out deaths by suicide by their cause.
    1. Deaths by suicide due to poverty increased by 69% from 2019 to 2020
    2. Deaths by suicide due to unemployment stood at 24%
    3. Deaths by suicide due to drug and alcohol addiction at 17%,
    4. Deaths by suicide due to illness at 16% and
    5. Deaths by suicide due to family problems at 14%.

 

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1768230
  2. https://www.indiancooperative.com/ncdc/boosting-dairy-co-ops-shah-launches-ncdcs-dairy-sahakar/
  3. https://krishijagran.com/animal-husbandry/amit-shah-launches-dairy-sahakar-scheme-for-strengthening-dairy-sector-in-india/
  4. https://www.aninews.in/news/national/general-news/amit-shah-launches-dairy-sahakar-scheme-in-gujarat20211101025303/
  5. https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/watch-how-the-milu-deer-made-a-comeback-in-china/article3721230ece
  6. https://news.cgtn.com/news/3d3d514e3345444e33457a6333566d54/index.html
  7. https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/animalkind/2018/10/15/milu-deer-fighting-its-way-out-extinction/1617748002/
  8. https://iucn-ctsg.org/wp-content/uploads/publications/27_2013_Pere_Davids_Deer_China.pdf
  9. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1768174
  10. https://www.niot.res.in/niot1/vmc_intro.php
  11. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/suicides-among-farm-workers-rose-last-year/article37235086.ece
  12. https://thewire.in/health/most-deaths-by-suicide-in-2020-were-among-daily-wage-workers-ncrb-data
  13. https://ncrb.gov.in/en/accidental-deaths-suicides-in-india
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