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Prelim Bits 03-08-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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August 03, 2022

Razakars

Six members of ‘Razakar Bahini’ were sentenced to death for ‘crimes against humanity’ by Bangladesh’s International Crimes Tribunal.

In 2010, Bangladesh established its International Crimes Tribunal in order to administer justice to those accused of committing war crimes against its people.

  • The Razakars are locally recruited paramilitary force that collaborated with the Pakistan army during the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War.
  • This paramilitary force was formed at Pakistan government initiative.
  • The Razakars are composed of mostly pro-Pakistani Bengalis and Urdu-speaking Biharis Muslims from Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan).
  • It also consisted of the religious parties that opposed the separation of East and West Pakistan, like Jamaat-e-Islami, Al Badr and Al Shams.
  • The approximate 50,000 Razakars assisted the army in raids against the local population and were accused of committing horrific atrocities.
  • Razakar literally means ‘volunteer’ or ‘helper’ in Persian and Urdu, but has come to mean ‘collaborator’ and is associated with betrayal in Bangladesh.

Razakar (Hyderabad)

  • At the time of partition of India in 1947, Nizam of Hydrabad formed a volunteer corps named 'Razakar (Hyderabad)' for resisting the entry of the Indian army into his kingdom.
  • The Razakars called for Hyderabad state to either join Pakistan, or to become a Muslim dominion.

Reference

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-global/razakars-accused-horrific-crimes-1971-bangladesh-liberation-war-8062174/
  2. https://en.banglapedia.org/index.php/Razakar
  3. https://www.thenewsminute.com/article/tejasvi-suryas-mention-razakar-hyderabad-attempt-polarise-say-historians-155077

Crypto Gas Fee

Creating and selling a non-fungible-token (NFT) on any marketplace comes with a significant cost (also known as gas fee).

  • Crypto Gas Fees is the transaction fees paid to miners on a blockchain network in order to get a user’s transaction to be included in the block.
  • Gas fees is not of fixed value but it keeps fluctuating with time.
  • It can range starting $10 to even $1000 dollars depending on the blockchain and the platform you use.
  • Determination of gas fees - The system of crypto gas fee operates on a basic supply and demand model.
  • If there is a higher demand for transactions on the blockchain, miners can opt to include transactions that pay more instead of those that pay less.
  • Because of this, users tend to pay more in order to get their transactions to be included first, fast, and effectively.

Methods to avoid Gas Fee on NFTs

  • There are two methods to avoid Gas Fee on NFTs - Lazy Minting and Polygon Blockchain.
  • Lazy Minting was launched near the end of 2020 and was quickly adopted by top-tier marketplaces such as NFT, OpenSea, and Rarible.
  • Minting means “just in time,” and Lazy Minting refers to minting at the point of purchase.
  • This concept quickly gained popularity among the creators because it enabled them to sell their NFTs without the need for an initial investment in gas fees.
  • This method is essentially used to avoid gas fees for both selling and creating NFT purposes.
  • However, the NFT is paid by the buyer of the NFT collection through this method.
  • Polygon Blockchain method can be done by choosing the ‘Polygon Blockchain’ option available in different platforms for minting your NFT without paying gas fee.

Reference

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/crypto/how-to-create-an-nft-for-free-without-paying-any-gas-fee-8064105/
  2. https://www.businesstoday.in/crypto/story/what-is-crypto-gas-fee-and-how-do-nft-creators-negotiate-find-out-335751-2022-05-31
  3. https://www.lcx.com/what-is-lazy-minting/

Waqf Properties

Ministry of Minority Affairs is implementing various schemes to protect Waqf properties.

  • Waqf is any movable or immovable property given in the name of God for religious and charitable purposes by a person professing Islam.
  • A waqf can be formed through a deed or instrument, or a property can be deemed waqf if it has been used for religious or charitable purposes for a long period of time.
  • A person creating the waqf cannot take back the property and the waqf would be a continuing entity.
  • Shahari Waqf Sampatti Vikas Yojana (SWSVY) is a Central Sector Scheme, under which the Ministry of Minority Affairs provides Grant-in-Aid to Central Waqf Council (CWC).
  • Under the scheme, interest free loans are provided to State Waqf Boards/ Waqf (SWB) Institutions for construction of economically viable buildings on the urban Waqf land such as marriage halls, hospitals, cold storages etc.
  • Qaumi Waqf Board Taraqqiati Scheme (QWBTS) - Financial Assistance is provided to SWBs towards computerization, digitization of records of Waqf properties and GIS Mapping of Waqf properties

Central Waqf Council (CWC)

  • It is a statutory body under the administration control of the Ministry of Minority Affairs.
  • It was setup in 1964 as per the provision given in the Waqf Act, 1954.
  • It acts as an advisory Body to the Central Government on matters concerning the working of the Waqf Boards and Auqaf.
  • The council consists of chairman and members not exceeding 20 in number and  appointed by the Government of India.
  • Union Minister in charge of Waqf is the ex-officio chairman of the council.

Reference

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1845931

Bangladesh’s Padma Bridge

Bangladesh Prime Minister has inaugurated the Padma Multipurpose Bridge across the Padma River.

  • Currently, Padma Multipurpose Bridge is the longest bridge in the country.
  • It is a four-laned bridge that connects the Mawa bank to the north and the Janjira area south of the Padma River.
  • The lower level of the bridge has a railway track, which is expected to be opened by 2024.
  • The railway line of the bridge will drastically reduce the travel time between India and Bangladesh. This will significantly boost trade and commerce between the two countries.
  • Construction - A pre-feasibility study for the construction of the bridge was first conducted in 1998-99. The Project was started in 2009.
  • In 2012, International Development Association (World Bank) cancelled its $1.2 billion credit citing corruption issues.
  • Following the setback, the Bangladesh government took matters into its own hands and self-financed the project.
  • In 2014, a deal was signed with China Railway Major Bridge Engineering Group for the construction of the bridge.
  • However, during inauguration, the ‘Bangladesh-China Silk Road Forum’ stated that the project was an example of Bangladesh-China cooperation under Belt and Road Initiative.
  • In response to this Bangladesh government clarified that the Padma Bridge is not a part of China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
  • Significance - The bridge will reduce the distance to about 250 km, which can be covered in around 3 hours.
  • The bridge will connect nearly 30 million people living in the country’s less-developed southwestern region and cities like Khulna, Jessore, and Barisal with the capital Dhaka and other areas.
  • The government estimates that the Padma Bridge will boost the country’s GDP by 1.2%.

References

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/bangladesh-padma-bridge-dhaka-clarified-reports-linking-china-bri/article6556687ece?homepage=true
  2. https://indianexpress.com/article/world/bangladesh/bangladesh-awaits-its-bridge-of-dreams-across-the-mighty-padma-7989698/

Anaemia Mukt Bharat

The Government of India implements Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) strategy under POSHAN Abhiyaan to reduce the prevalence of Anaemia in the country.

Anaemia

  • It is a condition in which the number of red blood cells is insufficient to meet the body’s physiological requirements, which vary by age, sex, altitude, smoking habits, and during pregnancy.
  • The manifestations of anemia include fatigue, weakness, dizziness and drowsiness to impaired cognitive development of children and increased morbidity.
  • Anaemia in pregnancy is associated with post-partum haemorrhage, neural tube defects, low birth weight, premature births, stillbirths and maternal deaths.
  • Deficiencies which cause Anaemia includes Iron, Vitamin B12, Folate, Vitamin A.
  • According to the National Family Health Survey 4 (NFHS-4) Anemic prevalence across all ages is extremely high in India varying from 30% to 69%.
  • As per NFHS-5 (2019-21) prevalence of anaemia is 25% in men, 57% in women, 31.1% in adolescent boys, 59.1% in adolescent girls, 52.2% in pregnant women and 67.1% in children (6-59 months).
  • The reduction of anemia is one of the important objectives of the POSHAN Abhiyaan or National Nutrition Mission.

Various interventions under the Anaemia Mukt Bharatprogramme  

  • In 2018, the Government of India launched the Anaemia Mukt Bharat (AMB) strategy to reduce anaemia by 3% points per year in the vulnerable age groups such as women, children and adolescents.
  • Various interventions - Prophylactic Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation in all six target age groups.
  • Intensified year-round Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) Campaign for
    1. improving compliance to Iron Folic Acid supplementation and deworming
    2. enhancing appropriate infant and young child feeding practices
    3. encouraging increase in intake of iron-rich food through diet diversity/ quantity/ frequency and/or fortified foods with focus on harnessing locally available resources
    4. ensuring delayed cord clamping after delivery (by 3 minutes) in health facilities
  • Testing and treatment of anaemia, using digital methods and point of care treatment, with special focus on pregnant women and school-going adolescents
  • Addressing non-nutritional causes of anaemia in endemic pockets with special focus on malaria, hemoglobinopathies and fluorosis.
  • Management of severe anaemia in pregnant women undertaken by administration of IV Iron Sucrose/Blood transfusion.
  • Providing incentives to the ANM for identification and follow-up of pregnant women with severe anaemia in high priority districts (HPDs)
  • Training and orientation of Medical Officers and front line-workers on newer Maternal Health and Anaemia Mukt Bharat guidelines
  • Field level awareness by ASHAs through community mobilization activities and IEC and BCC activities.
  • Measures taken includes - working with other line departments and ministries for strengthening implementation
  • engaging National Centre of Excellence and Advanced Research on Anaemia Control (NCEAR-A) at AIIMS, Delhi in capacity building of health care providers
  • Strengthening supply chain and logistics.
  • Development of AMB Training Toolkit for capacity building of health care providers in anaemia management
  • Launch of Anaemia Mukt Bharat e-Training Modules to facilitate training of the health care providers through virtual platforms.

References

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1795421
  2. https://anemiamuktbharat.info/home/interventions/
  3. https://vikaspedia.in/health/health-campaigns/anemia-mukt-bharat
  4. https://www.nhm.tn.gov.in/en/nhm-programsrmncha/anemia-mukt-bharat-amb
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