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Prelim Bits 08-04-2022 | Daily UPSC Current Affairs

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April 08, 2022

Lingaraj Temple

The Ministry of Home Affairs has opposed Odisha’s Lingaraj Temple Ordinance, 2020, saying that the proposed ordinance is in conflict with the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958.

The Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (AMASR) Act provides for preservation of ancient and historical monuments and archaeological sites and remains of national importance.

  • Lingaraj temple of Odisha was constructed by King Jajati Keshari in the 10th century and completed by King Lalatendu Keshari in the11th-century.
  • It is the largest temple in Bhubaneswar (Odisha), which was the cradle of the Kalinga School of Temple Architecture.
  • Bindusagar Lake is located in the north side of the temple.
  • On the western banks of Bindu Sagar, lies the beautiful garden of Ekamra Van (Forest of a single mango tree) named after the Hindu texts where Bhubaneswar was referred as Ekamra van.
  • Significance - Historian James Fergusson said that the Lingaraj temple is one of the finest examples of purely Hindu Temple in India.
  • Lingaraj is referred to as ‘Swayambhu’ (self-originated Shivling).
  • This temple signifies the syncretisation of Shaivism and Vaishnavism sects in Odisha.
  • The Shivling is known as Hari Hara. Perhaps the rising cult of Lord Jagannath which coincided with the completion of the Lingaraja Temple had a role to play.
  • Protection - In 2019, the Odisha Government had announced a development plan for the temple and its peripheral area in Bhubaneshwar.
  • The 66-acre “Ekamra Kshetra” development plan was launched to preserve the heritage and development of the 9 sites and their nearby areas at a cost of around Rs 700 crore.


  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-centre-oppose-odisha-lingaraj-temple-ordinance-7856637/
  2. https://odishatourism.gov.in/content/tourism/en/discover/attractions/temples-monuments/lingaraja-temple.html

Indian National Calendar

According to the Indian National Calendar or the Saka calendar, this Year (2022) marks the start of the year 1944.

  • The Indian National Calendar, based on the Saka era, is a one of the National Identity Elements.
  • [National Identity Elements -National Flag, National Bird, National Flower, National Tree, National Anthem, State Emblem, National Calendar, National Animal, National Song, Currency Symbol]
  • The Saka calendar was adopted as the national calendar in 1957 on the recommendation of a committee headed by Indian astrophysicist, and chairman of the Calendar Reform Committee, Meghnad Saha.
  • The Indian National Calendar was adopted, along with the Gregorian calendar, on 22 March 1957 by the government.
  • History - The calendar is based on the ascension of King Shalivaahan to the throne in 78 AD.
  • The Saka calendar started being used from the year 79 AD.
  • About the Calendar - Like the Gregorian calendar, the Indian National Calendar consists of 12 months, with 30-31 days in each month.
  • The first month of the New Year is Chaitra, while the last is Phalguna. Chaitra lasts from 21/22 March (the day following the vernal equinox ) to 20 April.
  • The calendar follows the tropical zodiac signs, which are also used by Western astrologers.
  • Usage - The national calendar is used along with the Gregorian calendar for all communications and calendars issued by the Indian government.
  • The Saka calendar is also used in the Gazette of India as well as the daily morning broadcast of All India Radio.
  • The Saka calendar still in use in states like Maharashtra and Goa. It is also used countries such as Nepal and Indonesia.


  1. https://knowindia.india.gov.in/national-identity-elements/national-calendar.php
  2. https://www.firstpost.com/india/happy-saka-new-year-heres-everything-you-need-to-know-about-the-national-calendar-10471491.html
  3. https://knowindia.india.gov.in/national-identity-elements/

Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram

Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram has been revised for implementation w.e.f from 2022-23 onwards in all Districts of the country including all the Aspirational Districts.

  • The erstwhile Multi-sectoral Development Programme (MsDP) has been restructured and renamed as Pradhan Mantri Jan Vikas Karyakram (PMJVK) for effective implementation since 2018.
  • PMJVK is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme that seeks to provide better socio-economic infrastructure assets and basic amenities to the minorities mainly in the field of education, health & skill development.
  • This which would further lead to lessening of the gap between the national average and the minority communities with regard to backwardness parameters.
  • In 2018, the restructuring was done to be implemented in 1300 identified Minority Concentration Areas (MCAs) of the Country.
  • MCAs include Minority Concentration Blocks (MCBs), Minority Concentration Towns (MCTs) and Minority Concentration District Headquarters (MCD Hqrs).
  • Beneficiaries - The communities notified as minority communities under Section 2 (c) of the National Commission for Minorities (NCM) Act, 1992 would be taken as Minority Communities under PMJVK.
  • At present 6 communities namely Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists, Zoroastrians (Parsis) and Jains have been notified as Minority Communities under Section 2 (c) of the NCM Act, 1992.
  • Special focus by earmarking funds - 80% of the resources under the PMJVK would be earmarked for projects related to education, health and skill development.
  • 33 to 40% of resources under the PMJVK would be specifically allocated for women centric projects.


  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1814463
  2. https://vikaspedia.in/social-welfare/minority-welfare-1/pradhan-mantri-jan-vikas-karyakram#:~:text=Pradhan%20Mantri%20Jan%20Vikas%20Karyakram%20(PMJVK)%20seeks%20to%20provide%20better,and%20the%20minority%20communities%20with

EOS-02 Satellite

A Union Minister said that EOS-02 satellite will be launched in second quarter of 2022, which was slated to launch during Quarter-4 of 2021.

  • EOS-02 is an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) that will function as a Technology demonstration satellite for various new technologies.
  • It will be launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
  • The first developmental flight of Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV-1) is scheduled to launch the EOS-02.
  • EOS-02 is a 4-stage microsatellite that will carry a payload of 500 kg to Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbit (LEO).
  • It has various applications that include agriculture, forestry, geology, hydrology, miniaturized power electronics, reaction wheels etc.
  • Related Links - Earth Observation Satellites, EOS-03 and Small Satellite Launch Vehicle, EOS-04

EOS Series

Launch Vehicle

Purpose of the Earth Observation satellite



EOS meant for Agriculture, Forestry & disaster management support



Technology demonstration satellite for various new technologies with applications that include agriculture, forestry, geology, hydrology etc.



First Agile Earth Observation satellite in Geostationary orbit and applications which include near real time imaging, quick monitoring of natural disasters, spectral signatures for agriculture, forestry etc.



Radar Imaging satellite meant to provide high quality images under all weather conditions for applications such as Agriculture, Forestry & Plantations, Soil Moisture & Hydrology and Flood Mapping.



EOS in the Geostationary Orbit.



EOS meant for applications, which include ocean related services and advisories towards potential fishing zone forecast , ocean state forecast


  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1814390
  2. https://www.isro.gov.in/sites/default/files/article-files/monthly-summary-of-department-of-space-last-1-year/monthly_summary_-_unclassified_june2021.pdf
  3. https://nextspaceflight.com/launches/details/751
  4. https://www.thestatesman.com/india/eos-02-satellite-will-be-launched-in-second-quarter-of-2022-jitendra-singh-150305816html
  5. https://www.indiatoday.in/science/story/isro-small-satellite-launch-vehicle-sslv-pslv-earth-observation-satellite-1934635-2022-04-07

Indian Tent Turtles

There are no reports to indicate that the Indian tent turtle is on the verge of extinction due to illegal mining in Narmada River.

  • Indian tent turtle (Pangshura tentoria) is a species of turtle in the family Geoemydidae.
  • The species is native and endemic to India, Nepal and Bangladesh, with three subspecies recorded from the region.

Sub-species of Indian Tent Turtles


P. t. tentoria

Occurs in peninsular India and is recorded from Orissa, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Madhya Pradesh

P. t. circumdata

Occurs in the western tributaries of Ganga and the rivers of Gujarat. It is found in Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat.

P. t. flaviventer

Occurs in the northern tributaries of Ganga and is recorded from Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Assam.

  • They are terrestrial, oviparous, precocial in nature.
  • Habitat - Freshwater, Wetlands and Swamp

Protection Status

IUCN Status

Lower Risk/ least concern


Appendix II

Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972

Schedule I (Highest degree of protection)

Major Threats - Due to the attractive appearance of the species, they are illegally traded in the pet market.

Steps by the Government to protect wildlife and its habitats

  • Protected Areas, viz., National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves have been created in the country covering important habitats to provide better protection to wildlife, including threatened species and their habitat.
  • Financial assistance is provided to the State/Union Territory Governments under the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’, for providing better protection to wildlife and improvement of habitat.
  • Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 provides for stringent punishment for violation of its provisions.
  • The Act also provides for forfeiture of any equipment, vehicle or weapon that is used for committing wildlife offence(s).
  • Local communities are involved in conservation measures through eco-development activities which help the forest departments in protection of wildlife.
  • Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) coordinates with State/UTs and other enforcement agencies to gather intelligence about poaching and unlawful trade in wild animals and animal articles.


  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1814557
  2. https://www.wii.gov.in/nmcg/priority-species/reptiles/indian-tent-turtle
  3. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/46577/97375127
  4. https://animalia.bio/indian-tent-turtle
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