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Prelim Bits 10-03-2022 | Daily UPSC Current Affairs

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March 10, 2022

Red Corridor

Authorities in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana claim Salwa Judum displaced from Red Corridor like Chhatisgarh are destroying the forest land.

  • The Red Corridor, also called the red zone, is a region in the east of India that experiences considerable Naxalite-Maoist insurgency (left wing).  
  • [Naxalites group mainly consist of the armed cadres of Communist Party of India (Maoist).
  • Maoist insurgency started in the 1940s in a small place called Naxalbari in West Bengal (hence the name ‘Naxalites’).]
  • Red Corridor areas also suffer from the greatest illiteracy, poverty and overpopulation in modern India.
  • These areas span parts of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Telangana and West Bengal.

All forms of Naxalite organisations have been declared as terrorist organizations under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.

  • Red corridor region is demarcated by the Union Government (Ministry of Home Affairs) to notify the districts which are affected by left wing extremism.
  • The primary criterion for removing the districts and including new ones was ‘incidents of violence’.

The multi-pronged strategy used by the government primarily includes development and security aspects of affected districts.

Projects related to development include infrastructure, roads, cell phone connectivity, bridges and schools.

Reference

  1. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/governance/life-in-red-corridor-future-still-bleak-for-those-displaced-from-chhattisgarh-81763
  2. https://thediplomat.com/2010/04/red-corridor/
  3. https://www.encyclo.co.uk/meaning-of-Red_corridor
  4. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/naxalism-maoist-attacks-home-minstry-modi-govt-national-policy-and-action-plan-5140028/

Postpartum haemorrhage

Postpartum haemorrhage has been a leading cause of maternal deaths in Kerala for the better part of the last decade.

  • Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the most common form of major obstetric haemorrhage.
  • It is a serious but rare condition when a woman has heavy blood loss of 500 ml or more within 24 hours after giving birth.
  • The types of PPH include, PPH can be
    1. Minor PPH (500–1000 ml),
    2. Major PPH (more than 1000 ml). Major could be divided to moderate (1000–2000 ml) or severe (more than 2000 ml).
  • Frequency - About 1 in 100 to 5 in 100 women have PPH.
  • PPH usually happens within 1 day of giving birth, but it can happen up to 12 weeks after having a baby.
  • It is more likely with a cesarean birth. It most often happens after the placenta is delivered, but it can also happen later.
  • Causes of PPH - Tear in the cervix or tissues of the vagina
  • Tear in a blood vessel in the uterus
  • Bleeding into a hidden tissue area or space in the pelvis. This mass of blood is called a hematoma. It is usually in the vulva or vagina.
  • Blood clotting disorders
  • Placenta problems
  • Symptoms - Heavy bleeding from the vagina that doesn’t slow or stop.
  • Signs of low blood pressure and shock include blurry vision; feeling confused dizzy, sleepy or weak; or feeling like you’re going to faint.
  • Swelling and pain around the vagina, or perineum (area between the vagina and rectum).
  • Increased heart rate.
  • Decrease in the red blood cell count.
  • Nausea (feeling sick to your stomach) or throwing up.
  • A person is more likely to have PPH if they have had it in the past or if you have certain medical conditions, especially conditions that affect the uterus or the placenta or conditions that affect how your blood clots.

PPH being a leading cause of maternal death is a country-wide trend and has also been seen in other low-income countries.

According the National Health Portal of India, PPH accounts for 35% of all maternal deaths.

Reference

  1. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/postpartum-haemorrhage-remains-leading-cause-of-maternal-deaths-in-kerala-report-81873
  2. https://www.rcog.org.uk/en/guidelines-research-services/guidelines/gtg52/
  3. https://www.stanfordchildrens.org/en/topic/default?id=postpartum-hemorrhage-90-P02486
  4. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499988/

Shackleton’s Ship

Scientists of the Endurance22 expedition have found the sunken wreck of polar explorer Ernest Shackleton’s ship Endurance, more than a century after it was lost to the Antarctic ice.

  • The vessel Endurance was crushed by ice and sank in November 1915.
  • This ship lies 3,000 m below the surface of the Weddell Sea, about 6.4 km south of the location recorded in 1915 by its captain, Frank Worsley.
  • Shackleton’s 1914-16 attempt to become the first person to cross Antarctica via the South Pole failed - he never set foot on the continent.
  • But his successful bid to reach help at a remote South Atlantic whaling station and rescue his men is considered a heroic feat of endurance.
  • The expedition to find the ship comes 100 years after Shackleton’s death in 1922.
  • Good Condition - The ship was in good condition - still intact - as it was 3,000 m below the surface of the Weddell Sea.
  • The bottom of the Weddell Sea is a very inhospitable environment for just about everything - especially the kind of bacteria, mites and wood-eating worms that would enjoy munching on a wooden shipwreck.
  • No sunlight penetrates to 10,000 feet that makes the deep waters dark.

The ship is protected as a historic monument under the 6-decade-old Antarctic Treaty that is intended to protect the region's environment.

Reference

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-international/antarctic-explorer-shackletons-ship-discovered-after-a-century/article65209215.ece
  2. https://www.firstpost.com/tech/news-analysis/explorer-ernest-shackletons-endurance-ship-found-after-a-century-near-the-antarctica-peninsula-10446151.html
  3. https://www.indiatoday.in/science/story/endurance-22-found-ernest-shackleton-ship-antarctica-expedition-wreckage-british-navy-1922623-2022-03-09

Food Inflation

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) could raise interest rates if food prices spike on the back of a rally in commodities due to the Ukraine crisis, Moody’s Analytics’ Steve Cochrane said.

In February 2022, the RBI stuck to its accommodative policy stance to help the economy recover from pandemic lows, keeping the key lending rate at record lows.

  • Food inflation refers to the rise in the price of food products.
  • Food inflation is volatile. It is driven by the combination of factors like
    1. Global food inflation,
    2. Rising income and diversification of diets raising the demand for high-value food products,
    3. Rise in cost of production and MSP,
    4. Input cost inflation and positive demand supply gap of milk, vegetables, and meat and fish,
    5. Fuel and agricultural wage inflation,  
    6. International food price surge,

Agricultural wage inflation is the universal driver of components and aggregate food inflation.

  • Food inflation has a cascading effect on non-food inflation and aggregate CPI inflation.

Reference

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-business/food-inflation-may-force-rbi-hand-on-rates/article65209163.ece#
  2. https://www.nipfp.org.in/publications/one-pagers/food-inflation-india-causes-and-consequences/#:~:text=Global%20food%20inflation%20increases%20prices,inflation%20and%20aggregate%20CPI%20inflation
  3. https://www.economicshelp.org/blog/2578/economics/food-inflation/

National Land Monetization Corporation

The Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister, has approved the setting up of the National Land Monetization Corporation (NLMC).

  • National Land Monetization Corporation (NLMC) will be set up as a wholly owned Government of India company with an initial authorized share capital of Rs 5000 crore and paid-up share capital of Rs 150 crore.
  • NLMC will be set up and administered by the Department of Public Enterprise, Ministry of Finance.
  • NLMC will undertake monetization of surplus land and building assets of
    • Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) and
    • Other Government agencies.
  • The proposal is in pursuance of the Budget Announcement for 2021-22.
  • With monetization of non-core assets, the Government would be able to generate substantial revenues by monetizing unused and under-used assets.
  • For CPSEs undergoing strategic disinvestment or closure, monetization of these surplus land and non-core assets is important to unlock their value.
  • NLMC will support and undertake monetization of these assets.
  • This will enable productive utilization of these under-utilized assets to
    1. Trigger private sector investments,
    2. Trigger new economic activities,
    3. Boost local economy and
    4. Generate financial resources for economic & social infrastructure.
  • NLMC is also expected to own, hold, manage and monetize
    1. Surplus land and building assets of CPSEs under closure and
    2. Surplus non-core land assets of Government owned CPSEs under strategic disinvestment.
  • These assets may be transferred to NLMC to hold, manage and monetize these assets.
  • NLMC will also advise and support other Government entities in identifying their surplus non-core assets and monetizing them in an efficient manner to generate maximum value realization.

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1804286
  2. https://indianexpress.com/article/business/economy/govt-land-monetisation-agency-finance-ministry-7812418/
  3. https://www.livemint.com/news/india/centre-approves-setting-up-of-national-land-monetization-corp-dpe-to-set-up-the-company-11646836939426.html
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