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June 11, 2019
12 months

Chagos Archipelago

  • The Chagos Archipelago is a group of seven atolls comprising more than 60 individual tropical islands in the Indian Ocean.
  • It is about 500 kilometers south of the Maldives archipelago.
  • This chain of islands is the southernmost archipelago of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, a long submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean.
  • The United Kingdom excised the archipelago from Mauritian territory in 1965, to for the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) along with islands of Aldabra, Farquhar and Desroches from the Seychelles.
  • In 1976, Aldabra, Farquhar and Desroches were returned to the Seychelles.
  • United Kingdom evicted the native people of Chagos between 1967 and 1973 to allow the United States to build a military base on Diego Garcia, the largest of the Chagos Islands.
  • The sovereignty of the Chagos Archipelago is disputed between the UK and Mauritius.
  • Recently United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution stating that Chagos archipelago forms an integral part of the territory of Mauritius, and UK must decolonize the region unconditionally within a period of no more than six months.


  • SWAYAM (Study Webs of Active–Learning for Young Aspiring Minds) is a programme initiated by Government of India.
  • The portal is ultimately capable of hosting 2000 courses and 80000 hours of learning: covering school, under-graduate, post-graduate, engineering, law and other professional courses.
  • This is done through an indigenous developed IT platform that facilitates hosting of all the courses taught in classrooms to be accessed by anyone, anywhere at any time.
  • All the courses are interactive, prepared by the best teachers in the country and are available, free of cost to the residents in India.
  • SWAYAM platform is developed by Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD).

Appointments of Navy Chief

  • The Chief of the Naval Staff is the commander and the highest-ranking officer in the Indian Navy.
  • The office of the Chief of the Naval Staff was created by The Commanders-In-Chief (Change in Designation) Act of the Indian Parliament in 1955, replacing the erstwhile office of the Commander-in-Chief of Indian Navy. 
  • Appointments to the office are made by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC).
  • The Chief of the Naval Staff generally reaches superannuation upon serving three years or at the age of 62, whichever is earlier.

Rajasthani Folk Dances

  • Rajasthani folk dances are originated from different tribes and mainly used at past time to entertain Kings.
  • Folk songs of rajasthan are commonly ballads which relate heroic deeds and love stories and religious or devotional songs known as bhajans and banis.
  • The Ghoomar dance from Udaipur and Kalbeliya dance of Jaisalmer have gained international recognition.
  • Ghoomar - Ghoomar is basically a community dance for women and performed on auspicious occasions.
  • Kalbelia - The dance is performed by a tribe of the same name, Kalbelia dance and songs are now in UNESCO’s representative list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity from the year 2010.
  • Terah Taali - This folk dance is performed by the Kamada tribes who are traditional snake charmers.
  • Besides this it is also performed by the tribes of Mirasi, Bhand, Dholi, Bhat and Nat.
  • Gair Dance - This traditional folk dance is one of the many dance- form of the Bhil community of Rajasthan.
  • Dandia dance which is performed with wooden sticks is a type of Gair dance.
  • Chari Dance - Chari dance describes the art of collecting water in a chari or pot by the Rajasthani womens in their day to day life.
  • It is also known as traditional fire dance of Rajasthan.
  • Chari dance belongs to Gujjar community and only womens perform in this dance.

Coliform Bacteria

  • Coliforms are bacteria that are always present in the digestive tracts of animals, including humans, and are found in their wastes.
  • Coliforms are indicator organisms, i.e the presence of coliforms in water proves the presence of other disease causing pathogens.
  • Thus the most basic test for bacterial contamination of a water supply is the test for total coliform bacteria.
  • Total coliform counts give a general indication of the sanitary condition of a water supply.
  • Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the major species in the fecal coliform group.

Nal Se Jal Scheme

  • Nal Se Jal (Water from Tap) scheme is the most ambitious project of union government.
  • It aims to ensure piped water for every household by 2024.
  • Newly-formed Ministry of Jal Shakti is the implementing agency of the scheme.


Source: PIB, the Hindu


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