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Prelim Bits 11-12-2021 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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December 11, 2021

National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme

  • National Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme (NVBDCP) is an umbrella programme that deals with following diseases - Malaria, Dengue, Filaria, Japanese Encephalitis and Kala-azar.
  • This Programme was launched in 2003-04 by merging National Anti-malaria Control Programme, National Filaria Control Programme and Kala Azar Control programmes.
  • Japenese Encephilitis Control Programme and Dengue have also been included in this Program.
  • This programme is administered by the National Centre for Vector Borne Diseases Control (NCVBDC).
  • These diseases are targeted for elimination, and not for eradication.
  • [Eradication of the disease is permanent reduction to zero of the global incidences of infection caused by specific agent as a result of deliberate efforts; and when intervention measures are no longer needed.]

Disease

Elimination Targets

Malaria

Elimination by 2030

Lymphatic Filariasis

Elimination by 2030

Kala Azar

Elimination by 2023

  • Directorate NVBDCP is the central nodal agency for prevention and control of 6 vector borne diseases (VBDs) including Chikungunya.
  • [6 VBDs - Malaria, Filaria, Kala Azar, Japenese Encephilitis, Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic fever, and Chikungunya.]

National Leprosy Eradication Programme

  • National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP) is a centrally sponsored scheme under the umbrella of National Health Mission.
  • This Programme is implemented by the government with the goal to “make India leprosy free”.
  • Objectives:
    1. To reduce Prevalence rate less than 1/10,000 population at sub national and district level.
    2. To reduce Grade II disability % < 1 among new cases at National level
    3. To reduce Grade II disability cases < 1 case per million population at National level.
    4. Zero disabilities among new Child cases.
  • It also aims at generating awareness about leprosy disease.
  • Disability Prevention & Medical Rehabilitation (DPMR) is a priority.
  • NLEP follows decentralized health planning and funds are sent to the states through State Health Societies.

India achieved the goal set by the National Health Policy, 2002 of elimination of leprosy as a public health problem, defined as less than 1 case per 10,000 population, at the National level in 2005.

National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme

  • National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme (NTEP) is the Public Health initiative of the Government of India under the umbrella of National Health Mission (NHM).
  • NTEP has a goal of ending TB by 2025, five years ahead of the global targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of 2030.
  • It provides technical and managerial leadership to anti-tuberculosis activities in the country.
  • As per the National Strategic Plan 2017-25, the program has a vision of achieving a "TB free India".
  • Its strategies are based under the broad themes of “Prevent, Detect, Treat and Build pillars for universal coverage and social protection”.
  • NTEP provides various free of cost, quality TB diagnosis and treatment services across the country through the government health system.

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1778834
  2. https://www.nhp.gov.in/national-vector-borne-disease-control-programme_pg
  3. https://dghs.gov.in/content/1349_3_NationalLeprosyEradicationProgramme.aspx
  4. http://upnrhm.gov.in/Home/Nvbdcp

Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer

NASA launched a new mission named Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) onboard SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket.

  • IXPE observatory is a joint effort of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Italian Space Agency.
  • It is the first satellite mission that is dedicated to the measure the polarization of X-Rays from different cosmic sources.
  • This mission was developed by Small Explorer Program of NASA.
  • IXPE is a space observatory with three identical telescopes designed to measure the polarization of state of light from astrophysical sources to provide insight into our understanding of X-ray production in objects.
  • [X-ray producing objects - Neutron stars, pulsar wind nebulae, supernova remnants, stellar and super-massive black holes, and dozens of other high-energy objects.]
  • The mission’s primary length is 2 years and the observatory will be at 600 kms altitude, orbiting around Earth’s equator.

Reference

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-nasas-ixpe-mission-that-will-explore-universes-mysterious-objects-7665727/
  2. https://ixpe.msfc.nasa.gov/

Global Health Security Index 2021

The Global Health Security (GHS) Index 2021 was jointly released by non-profits Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) and the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security.

  • The GHS Index 2021 is the first comprehensive assessment and benchmarking of health security and related capacities of 195 countries to prepare for epidemics and pandemics.
  • By assessing these capacities every 2-3 years, the GHS Index stimulates political will and action to prioritize addressing these gaps.
  • This Index has assessed countries across 6 categories, 37 indicators and 171 questions, using instantly available information.

Structure of the GHS Index

According to the GHS Index 2021, all countries remains unprepared for future epidemic and pandemic threats.

  • Findings - The world’s overall performance on the GHS Index score slipped to 38.9 (out of 100) in 2021, from a score of 40.2 in 2019.
  • This, even as infectious diseases are expected to have the greatest impact on the global economy in the next decade.
  • All countries across all income levels had insufficient health capacities. This left the world acutely vulnerable to future health emergencies.
  • In 2021, no country scored in the top tier of rankings and no country scored above 75.9.
  • The report showed that India has slipped by 0.8 points since 2019.

Reference

  1. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/world-unprepared-for-future-pandemics-global-health-security-index-2021-80611
  2. https://www.ghsindex.org/about/

PLI Scheme for Drugs

The Department of Pharmaceuticals had launched a Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for promotion of domestic manufacturing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients and their Key Starting Materials.

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

  • Also known as bulk drug, the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) is the chemical molecule in a finished pharmaceutical product (FPP) that lends the product the claimed therapeutic effect.
  • API means the active ingredient which is contained in medicine.
  • Example - An active ingredient to relieve pain is included in a painkiller.

Key Starting Materials  

  • Also known as Drug Intermediates, Key Starting Materials are chemical compounds that are used as a base to make an API.
  • An API starting material can be a raw material, intermediate or an API that is used in the production of an API.
  • It is incorporated as a significant structural fragment into the structure of the API.

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1779692
  2. https://www.who.int/medicines/areas/quality_safety/quality_assurance/DefinitionAPI-QAS11-426Rev1-08082011.pdf

UN gives Observer Status to the ISA

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has conferred Observer Status to the International Solar Alliance (ISA).

  • ISA was conceived as a joint effort by India & France to mobilise efforts against climate change through the deployment of solar energy solutions.
  • It was presented by the leaders of the 2 countries at the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Paris in 2015.
  • To know more about the International Solar Alliance, click here.

Reference

https://www.thehindu.com/news/international/observer-status-granted-to-international-solar-alliance/article37927868.ece

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