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Prelim Bits 13-10-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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October 13, 2022

Kadavur Slender Loris Sanctuary

Tamil Nadu government has notified the country’s first Kadavur slender loris sanctuary in Karur and Dindigul districts of the State.

  • The Sanctuary covers 11,806 hectares of the Kadavur Reserve Forest in Karur and Dindigul districts.
  • The Kadavur Reserve Forest has a population of 3,500 Slender Loris according to a 2016-17 census.
  • The current population is estimated to be around 5,000.
  • The main reason for the growth of Slender Loris in this region is the medium to high temperature in the hill, which has an elevation of about 1,200 meters from sea level.
  • Related Links - Kadavur Reserve Forest

Slender Loris

  • Slender loris (Loris tardigradus) is a shy, secretive and reclusive species of primate, and has nocturnal habits.
  • Habitat - They are usually solitary but sometimes found in pairs.
  • It usually travels from the canopy of one tree to another. At times, it comes down to the bushes at the ground level to feed.
  • It sleeps by day in the foliage or in a hole or crevice. It comes out at dusk in search of prey.
  • Location - It is native to Southern India and Sri Lanka.
  • It is commonly found in the tropical scrubs, deciduous forests and scrubs as well as the dense hedgerow plantations bordering farmlands.
  • Food - It eats lantana berries, insects, lizards, small birds, tree frogs, tender leaves and buds.
  • It plays a key role in controlling agricultural crop pests in organic farms.
  • Threats - Habitat loss, electrocution of live wires, road accidents and illegal smuggling.
  • Lifespan - The lifespan of Slender Loris is about 10 to 12 years in its natural habitat.
  • Protection Status
    1. IUCN - Endangered
    2. CITES - Appendix II
    3. Wild Life Protection Act, 1972 - Schedule I

                        kadavursanctuary  

References

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/tamil-nadu-government-notifies-indias-first-slender-loris-sanctuary-at-kadavur/article66000494.ece
  2. https://indianexpress.com/article/cities/chennai/countrys-first-slender-loris-habitat-in-karur-dindigul-districts-of-tn-notified-8204732/
  3. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/slender-loris-gets-a-sanctuary-in-tamil-nadu/articleshow/94821298.cms

Broccoli Gas

A new research published, proposes that the presence of the methylated gas (methyl bromide) emitted by broccoli on other planets could provide evidence of extra-terrestrial life.

  • Broccoli, like many other plants, emits gases that help it expel toxins.
  • This gas emitted by broccoli is the result of a process called methylation. For example - methyl bromide is a methylated gas.
  • If such gases were detected in the atmosphere of another planet, it could suggest the existence of life there.

Methylation is a process where an organism adds a carbon atom and three hydrogen atoms to an unwanted chemical, so that the potential toxin is turned into a gas that floats away safely into the atmosphere.

Methyl Bromide

  • Methyl bromide (MB) is a colourless, non-flammable, highly toxic gas. It is a bio signature gas.
  • MB is emitted more likely by a living organisms whereas other bio-signature gas can be produced by volcanoes and other geological processes.
  • MB is volatile in nature and if found in atmosphere shows it was not made so long ago.
  • Uses - MB is used as a refrigerant, insecticide, fumigant, and fire extinguisher.

Methyl bromide is an ozone depleting substance and has been phased out under the Montreal Protocol.

References

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/technology/science/broccoli-gas-life-on-other-planets-m-dwarf-star-8203898/

Interpol Red Notice

Recently, Interpol has sent back India's request to issue a Red Notice against Sikhs for Justice (SFJ) founder Gurpatwant Singh Pannun.

  • Sikhs for Justice (SFJ) is a Khalistan separatist group that calls for an independent Khalistan.
  • Gurpatwant Singh Pannun is the Canada-based founder and legal advisor of the pro-Khalistan outfit SFJ.

Pannun has been declared as an ‘individual terrorist’ under the fourth schedule of India’s Unlawful Activities Prevention Amendment Act.

Red Notice

  • Red Notices (RN) or Red Corner Notice are issued for fugitives wanted either for prosecution or to serve a sentence.
  • An RN is a request to law enforcement worldwide to locate and provisionally arrest a person pending extradition, surrender, or similar legal action.
  • An RN is published by Interpol at the request of a member country.
  • Also, the country issuing the request need not be the home country of the fugitive.
  • An RN is not an international arrest warrant.
  • RN issued against Indians in the past - Fugitive diamantaire Nirav Modi and his wife, fugitive businessman Mehul Choksi, gangster Ravi Pujari, etc.
  • The latest issue was for Goldy Brar, for the murder of Punjabi singer Sidhu Moosewala.

Interpol

  • Interpol, or International Criminal Police Organisation, is an inter-governmental body Founded in 1923.
  • It is headquartered in Lyon, France, and has offices in several countries around the world.
  • Interpol has 195 member countries and has a National Central Bureau (NCB) in each member country.
  • NCB of the country links its national police with Interpol’s global network.
  • It facilitates global police cooperation to fight international crime.

The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the national central bureau of India to liaison with Interpol.

  • Interpol issues 8 different notices which are mostly colour coded

                   interpolnotices

References

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/everyday-explainers/gurpatwant-singh-pannun-interpol-red-corner-notice-explained-8204197/
  2. https://www.livemint.com/news/world/interpol-cites-misuse-of-uapa-rejects-india-s-red-corner-plea-for-khalistan-separatist-pannun-11665581191103.html
  3. https://www.interpol.int/en/How-we-work/Notices/Red-Notices

PM-DevINE

The Union Cabinet has approved the Prime Minister’s Development Initiative for North East Region (PM-DevINE).

  • PM’s Development Initiative for North East Region (PM-DevINE) was announced in the Union Budget 2022-23.
  • This scheme was announced to address the Basic Minimum Services (BMS) shortfalls and development gaps in the North Eastern Region (NER).
  • This scheme will,
    1. Fund infrastructure convergently, in the spirit of PM Gati Shakti.
    2. Support social development projects based on felt needs of the NER.
    3. Enable livelihood activities for youth and women.
    4. Fill the development gaps in various sectors.
  • Implementing Ministry - PM-DevINE will be implemented by the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER) through North Eastern Council or Central Ministries/ agencies.
  • Outlay - It is a Central Sector Scheme with 100% Central funding and will have an outlay of Rs.6, 600 crores.
  • Time Period – The scheme will be operational for the remaining 4 years of the 15th Finance Commission from 2022-23 to 2025-26.
  • Efforts will be made to complete the PM-DevINE projects by 2025-26 so that there are no committed liabilities beyond this year.

References

  1. https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1867079
  2. https://indianexpress.com/article/india/over-rs-6000-crore-scheme-for-northeast-gets-cabinet-nod-8205273/lite/

Sloth Bear

The first-ever World Sloth Bear Day celebrations were held by Wildlife SOS in Agra in collaboration with the IUCN and the UP Forest Department.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has declared October 12 as the World Sloth Bear day to be celebrated worldwide.

  • Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus) are unique bear species that are identified by their very distinct long, shaggy dark brown or black fur.
  • They have distinct white V-shaped chest patch and four-inch long ivory-coloured curved claws used for digging out termites and ants from rock-hard mounds.

                           slothbear

  • Habitat - Sloth bears are endemic to the Indian sub-continent with small populations in Nepal and Sri Lanka.
  • 90% of the species population is found in India.
  • Sloth bears are found in all parts of the country except Jammu and Kashmir and north-eastern States.
  • Food - Sloth bears are omnivorous and survived on termites, ants and other social insects and fruits.
  • Threats
    1. Sloth bears were poached from the wild for entertainment. For example, they were exploited as dancing bear by the ethnic Kalandar community.
    2. Man-Animal conflict.
    3. Habitat fragmentation.
  • Conservation Status
    1. IUCN – Vulnerable
    2. The (Wildlife Protection) Act of India, 1972 - Schedule I
    3. CITES - Appendix – I

References

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/kolkata/experts-call-for-protection-of-sloth-bear-on-first-world-sloth-bear-day/article66001549.ece
  2. https://www.indiatimes.com/explainers/news/world-sloth-bear-day-all-you-need-to-know-about-the-rare-indian-bear-581824.html
  3. https://wildlifesos.org/sloth-bears-animals/what-is-a-sloth-bear/
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