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Prelim Bits 14-08-2021 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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August 14, 2021

Cryptocurrency Fan Tokens

Footballer Lionel Messi’s signing on fee at Ligue 1 French club Paris St Germain (PSG) includes some of the PSG’s cryptocurrency ‘fan tokens’.

  • Fan Tokens are a type of non-fungible token (NFT), a digital-only asset.
  • Like Bitcoin and similar digital currencies, fan tokens are volatile assets, they can be traded on exchanges and their value can drastically change overnight.
  • Fans can purchase said crypto tokens with real-world money to gain access to exclusive content and augmented-reality games.
  • These fan tokens are created by a crypto platform called Socios.
  • Voting - Among other rewards and perks, the fan token holders also get to vote on mostly minor decisions related to their clubs.
  • More tokens a fan has, more votes they get in the polls. Ultimately though, the polls are decided upon by the clubs.

IPCC Sixth Assessment Report - Through Images

Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has released the 6th Assessment Report titled ‘Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis’.

  • This is the first part of the three-part report, which was prepared by the scientists of Working Group-I. (Other two parts to be released in 2022).
  • It noted that global net-zero by 2050 was the minimum required to keep the temperature rise to 1.5 degree Celsius.
  • It sets the stage for the Conference of Parties (CoP) 26 conference in November 2021.


  • CO2 Concentrations are the highest in at least two million years.
  • Most of the CO2 emitted by humans (2,400 billion tonnes of CO2 was emitted by humans since the late 1800s) can be attributed to the burning of fossil fuels.
  • Heat waves and humid heat stress will become more intense and frequent over Southeast Asia during the 21st century.

  • Both summer and annual monsoon precipitation will increase, with enhanced inter annual variability over Southeast Asia.
  • To know more about IPCC Sixth Assessment Report, click here.

IPCC Report’s Findings about India

  • Indian Ocean is warming faster than the global average.
  • Sea surface temperature over Indian Ocean may increase by 1 to 2 °C when there is 1.5°C to 2°C global warming. This higher rate of sea temperature than other areas may influence other regions.
  • Changes in monsoon precipitation are also expected, with both annual and summer monsoon precipitation projected to increase.
  • South West Monsoon has declined over the past few decades because of the increase of aerosols, but once this reduces, we will experience heavy monsoon rainfall.
  • Global Warming will have a serious impact on mountain ranges across the world, including the Himalayas.
  • The snowlines are retreating, and this can cause a change in the water cycle, the precipitation patterns, increased floods as well as an increased scarcity of water in the future in the states across the Himalayas.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

  • It is an international body set up in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to provide policymakers with
    1. Regular assessments of the scientific basis of climate change
    2. Impacts and future risks associated with Climate Change
    3. Options for adaptation and mitigation for Climate Change
  • Membership of the IPCC is open to all members of WMO and UNEP.
  • Assessment Reports is prepared by 3 working groups (WG) of scientists.
    1. WG -I - To deals climate change on a scientific basis.
    2. WG-2 - To look at the likely impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation issues.
    3. WG-3 - To look into actions to be taken to combat climate change.

Protein-based Vaccine

Researchers have developed a protein-based vaccine that mimics shape of coronavirus. This can be used to create immunity that lasts for long time.

  • This vaccine was developed with nanoparticles that mimic SARS-CoV-2 by displaying multiple copies of receptor binding domain (RBD) antigen.
  • The surface-decorated nanoparticles generated neutralising antibodies that prevented SARS-CoV-2 infection in cells.

Result of New Family Planning Policy

The following are the result of the Government’s initiatives for controlling the Population.  

  • India’s Total Fertility Rate (TFR) has declined from 2.9 (2005) to 2.2 (2018), as per Sample Registration System (SRS).

TFR is the average number of children born to a woman in her life time. TFR of 2.1 is set by the Government as the replacement level fertility rate (target) at which population stability is achieved.

  • 28 out of 36 States/UTs have already achieved the replacement level fertility of 2.1 or less,
  • Crude Birth Rate (CBR) declined from 23.8 (2005) to 20.0 (2018)
    • To get the CBR, the ratio of Number of live births during the year to the Mid-year population must be multiplied by 1000.
  • Decadal growth rate declined from 21.54% (1990-2000) to 17.64% (2001-2011),
  • India’s Wanted Fertility Rate has declined from 1.9 (NFHS-3) to 1.8 (NFHS-4).

New Family Planning Policy

  • India was the world’s first country to have launched a National Programme for Family Planning in 1952.
  • Under the programme, the public health sector provides various family planning services at various levels of health system.
  • The Government has been implementing this programme in line with the policy framework of population stabilization as envisaged in the National Population Policy (NPP-2000).
    • This is done by creating a robust service delivery and demand side mechanism to address the unmet needs for family planning.
  • Family Planning programme got a further boost through comprehensive and holistic planning after the National Health Mission (2005).
  • National Health Policy (NHP) 2017 provides policy guidance and sets out indicative, quantitative goals and objectives for population stabilization.

Mission Parivar Vikas

  • This Mission was launched by the Government in 2017 to improve access to contraceptives through promotional schemes, awareness generation activities, capacity building and intensive monitoring.
  • It was launched in 146 high fertility districts with TFR of 3 and above of 7 high-focus states (UP, Bihar, Rajasthan, MP, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Assam).

National Health Mission (NHM)

  • Launched in 2005, the NHM envisages achievement of universal access to equitable, affordable & quality health care services that are accountable and responsive to people’s needs.
  • This Mission encompasses its two Sub-Missions,
    1. National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and
    2. National Urban Health Mission (NUHM).
  • The main programmatic components of NHM include,
    1. Strengthening of the Health System,
    2. Reproductive-Maternal-Neonatal-Child and Adolescent Health (RMNCH+A), and
    3. Communicable and Non-Communicable Diseases.
  • Features of NHM,
    1. NHM is principle vehicle for Universal Health Coverage (UHC),
    2. Goals/targets are aligned with National Health Policy, 2017 and SDG-3,
    3. NHM will integrate with the proposed National Health Protection Mission under Ayushman Bharat.
    4. It will facilitate horizontal integration of all vertical disease programs to ensure integrated approach to health and wellness.
    5. The following table depicts the goals of the NHM. 



Maternal Mortality Rate

Reduce MMR to 1/1000 live births

Infant Mortality Rate

Reduce IMR to 25/1000 live births

Total Fertility Rate

Reduce TFR to 2.1


Prevention and reduction of anaemia in women aged 15-49 years


Prevent and reduce mortality & morbidity from communicable, non-communicable; injuries and emerging diseases


Reduce annual incidence and mortality from Tuberculosis by half


Reduce the prevalence of Leprosy to <1/10000 population and incidence to zero in all districts


Annual Malaria Incidence to be <1/1000


Less than 1% microfilaria prevalence in all districts


Elimination by 2015, <1 case/10000 population in all blocks


Reduce household out-of-pocket expenditure on total health care expenditure


Source: PIB, The Indian Express, First Post

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