iasparliament Logo
February 15, 2019
1 year

Battle of Sinhagad

  • The Battle of Sinhagad took place on the fort of Sinhagad near the city of Pune, Maharashtra, India.
  • The battle was fought between Tanaji Malusare commander of Maratha ruler Shivaji and Udaybhan Rathod, fort keeper under Jai Singh I who was a Mughal Army Chief.
  • Tanaji Malusare lost his life but the Kondana fort was captured.
  • The Sinhagad Fort was initially known as "Kondhana" after the sage Kaundinya.
  • Shivaji renamed the fort from Kondhana fort to Sinhagad to honour the Commander Tanaji Malusare


  • It is a Tamil-language based, physical and vocal form of rural, open-air ensemble theatre.
  • It is widespread in the northern and central parts of the state of Tamil Nadu in South India.
  • Kattaikkuttu uses different kinds of song, music, articulated prose, acting, movement, make-up and elaborate costumes.
  • It produces all-night narrative events most of which are based on the pan-Indian epic, the Mahabharata.
  • The performers – by tradition only men - sing, act and dance and the musicians accompany them on the harmonium, the mridangam and the mukavinai.
  • It uses a wide range of media that require multiple skills, including a strong voice, versatile acting and movement skills and a talent for spontaneous comedy.

Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-dhan (PM-SYM)

  • PM-SYM will be rolled out by the Ministry of Labor and Employment.
  • The scheme was announced in the Interim Budget for the well being of the unorganized sector.
  • The eligibility to join the scheme are as follows
  1. The unorganized sector worker whose monthly income is Rs 15,000/ per month or less.
  2. Should belong to the entry age group of 18-40 years are eligible for the scheme.
  3. Should not be covered under New Pension Scheme (NPS), Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) scheme or Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO).
  4. should not be an income tax payee.
  • The salient Features of PM-SYM are
  1. Minimum Assured Pension: Each subscriber under the PM-SYM, shall receive minimum assured pension of Rs 3000/- per month after attaining the age of 60 years.
  2. Family Pension: During the receipt of pension, if the subscriber dies, the spouse of the beneficiary shall be entitled to receive 50% of the pension received by the beneficiary as family pension. Family pension is applicable only to spouse.
  • PM-SYM is a voluntary and contributory pension scheme on a 50:50 basis between the subscriber and Central Government.
  • It will be a Central Sector Scheme administered by the Ministry of Labor and Employment.
  • It will be implemented through Life Insurance Corporation of India and Community Service Centers

Islamic revolution (Iranian Revolution of 1978-79)

  • The 40th anniversary of the Iran’s Islamic Revolution that took place in 1978-79 was observed.
  • The protests during the 1978-79 upended the Pahlavi dynasty and brought the theocratic regime.
  • The reason for the revolution was to stop the oppression under the western secular policies of the authoritarian Shah of Iran.
  • This movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.
  • After 1988 Iran was officially known as the Islamic Republic of Iran.
  • The Islamic Revolution impacted other Muslim majority countries by showing how to fight against oppression, westernization and secularization of society.
  • Iran’s crude oil production, which makes up for 70% of the country’s export, saw a major fall following the Islamic revolution in 1979.
  • United States of America imposed sanctions upon Iran following the revolution.

Brownian motion

  • Brownian motion is the continuous random movement of microscopic solid particles when suspended in liquid or gas.
  • The zig-zagging movement of the particles was first observed by the British botanist Robert Brown.
  • It was observed by him in 1827 while studying pollen grains in water and is named after him.
  • Brownian movement occurs because of collisions of the particles with the continually moving molecules of the liquid or gas.
  • The molecules cannot be seen but their effect on the particles demonstrates their existence.
  • The phenomenon accounts for the gradual dispersal of smells in the air.

Shift in Phenology

  • Phenology is the time of flowering, fruiting, and arrival of leaves.
  • Across the world, scientists have recorded a shift in phenology in several tree species with the rising air temperatures.
  • In Germany an examination of data from 1961 to 2000 showed that the phenology of fruit trees and field crops had clearly advanced as air temperatures had drastically changed since the late 1980s.
  • Another study across Europe revealed that a warming in early spring (February to April) by 1 degree Celsius caused an advance in the beginning of the growing season by seven days.
  • In India, Kani Kona flowers in Kerala blossomed two months ahead of Vishu.
  • Vishu is the Malayalam New Year celebrated during the Mid-April.
  • The ‘kani konna’ or the Indian laburnum is the state flower of Kerala.


Source: PIB, The Hindu, Indian Express


Login or Register to Post Comments
There are no reviews yet. Be the first one to review.
UPSC Prelims 2020