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Prelim Bits 15-11-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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November 15, 2022

Sea Vigil-22

The third edition of the ‘pan-India’ coastal defence Exercise ‘Sea Vigil-22’ is conducted by the Indian Navy.

  • Sea Vigil is a national-level coastal defence exercise which was conceptualised in 2018.
  • The exercise validates various measures that have been instituted towards enhancing maritime security since ‘26/11’.
  • The exercise is being conducted by the Indian Navy in coordination with the Coast Guard and other ministries involved in maritime activities.
  • The exercise will be undertaken along the entire 7516-km coastline and Exclusive Economic Zone of India.
  • The exercise involves all the Coastal States and Union territories along with other maritime stakeholders, including the fishing and coastal communities.
  • It provides a realistic assessment of India’s strengths, weaknesses and preparedness in maritime and national security.
  • Sea Vigil and TROPEX together will cover the entire spectrum Maritime Security challenges.

Theatre Level Readiness Operational Exercise (TROPEX) is an inter-service military exercise conducted every two years.

Other maritime security initiative after 26/11

  • An Automatic Identification System (AIS) was made compulsory for all vessels above 20 metres after the 2008 terrorist attacks in Mumbai.
  • A project to install transponders on small fishing vessels, under 20 metres in length was planned and the pilot started in Tamil Nadu.
  • The transponders with positioning navigation systems have been modified into a two-way communication system in this pilot.

References

  1. The Hindu - Projects to track small fishing vessels – Sea Vigil-22
  2. Live Mint - India conducts major ‘Sea Vigil’ coastal defence exercise
  3. Financial Express - Sea Vigil-22 – To validate maritime security mechanism

Global Shield Plan

A G7-led plan called Global Shield was launched at the U.N. COP27 summit held at Egypt.

  • The Global Shield (GS) is a funding mechanism that provides funding to countries suffering climate disasters.
  • Coordinators - The Group of 7 (G7) and the V20 group of climate-vulnerable countries.
  • Objective - The GS will close urgent protection gaps in countries by designing, funding, and facilitating interventions.
  • The GS aims to rapidly provide pre-arranged insurance and disaster protection funding after events such as floods, droughts and hurricanes hit.
  • The Global Shield aims to complement, not replace, the progress on ‘loss and damage’.

Pakistan will be among the first recipients of funding from the G7 ‘Global Shield’ initiative.

  • Working of Global Shield
  1. Countries will lead on identifying key protection gaps.
  2. The GS provides a set of adequate instruments and partners to close these gaps in the most efficient and effective way.
The Vulnerable Twenty (V20) Group of Ministers of Finance of the Climate Vulnerable Forum (CVF) is a dedicated cooperation initiative of economies systemically vulnerable to climate change.

References

  1. The Hindu - G7 launches climate 'Shield' fund
  2. V20 - Working towards a global shield against climate risks

Operation Barkhane

French President announced the end of the decade-long military Operation Barkhane in Africa.

sahel

  • France began its military operations in Sahel region in January 2013 with the title Operation Serval.
  • It aimed to target Islamic extremists linked to al-Qaeda who took control of northern Mali.
  • France regained Mali’s northern regions from the extremists in 2014 through Operation Serval.
  • In 2014, the mission was scaled up and renamed as Operation Barkhane to counter-terrorism.
  • The objective was to assist local armed forces to prevent the resurgence of non-state armed groups across the Sahel region.
  • Around 4,500 French personnel were deployed with the local joint counter-terrorism force.
  • Present Scenario - The French troops left their base in the Malian town of Gao.
  • Some 3,000 French troops will remain in Niger, Chad and Burkina Faso but they will not act independently and only will co-ordinate actions with national armies.

References

  1. The Hindu - Why has France ended its military operations in Sahel?
  2. BBC News - France calls time on Operation Barkhane in Sahel

Tokhü Emong Bird Count

A recent birding drive Tokhü Emong Bird Count (TEBC) was organised in Nagaland has documented a total of 178 bird species in the state.

  • The Tokhü Emong Bird Count (TEBC) was Nagaland's first-ever birding event where birdwatchers across the state carried out a bird documentation exercise.
  • The TEBC falls within the Salim Ali Bird Count, a nationwide event conducted by the Bombay Natural History Society.
  • The first edition of TEBC documented 178 bird species in the state.
  • The 4 day event was organised in collaboration with
  1. The Wokha Forest Division,
  2. The Divisional Management Unit of Nagaland Forest Management Project (NFMP), Wokha, Nagaland,
  3. Bird Count India.

Nagaland is a State with diverse festivals and diverse birdlife and is known as the ‘Falcon Capital of the World’.

  • The event spread awareness about Nagaland’s bird diversity.
  • Some of the species recorded during TEBC apart from Amur Falcons included Red-billed Liocichla, Black-breasted Thrush, Mountain-Bamboo Partridge, Crested Finch bill and Rusty-capped Fulvetta.

Tokhü Emong

  • Tokhü Emong is post-harvest festival of the Lothas.
  • Tokhü Emong is a 9 day festival celebrated in the month of November.
  • Tokhü Emong is also a festival of thanksgiving, sharing, and reconciliation.

Lotha is a Naga community dominatingly found in Wokha district of Nagaland.

References

  1. The Hindu - Nagaland to undertake first bird count
  2. Down to Earth - Nagaland records 178 bird species
  3. Live Mint - Nagaland’s first-ever birding event

Long Term-Low Emission Development Strategy

At the 27th UN Conference of Parties (COP27) in Egypt’s Sharm el-Sheikh, India submits long-term low emission development strategy to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  • Obligation - The 195 member countries of the UNFCCC were obliged to submit the Long Term-Low Emission Development Strategy (LT-LEDS) document by 2022.
  • But, only 57, including India, have done so.
  • India’s LT-LEDS - India’s LT-LEDS was launched to transition to a “low emissions” pathway.
  • The LT-LEDS has been prepared in the framework of India’s right to an equitable and fair share of the global carbon budget.

 

long-term-low-emission-development-strategy.png

  • Objectives - The strategy is aimed at rational utilisation of national resources with due regard to energy security.
  • It further focuses on the increased use of biofuels, especially ethanol blending in petrol.
  • It also envisages maximising the use of green hydrogen fuel to drive the low carbon development of the transport sector. 
  • It further says that the transitions from fossil fuels will be undertaken in a just, smooth, sustainable and all-inclusive manner.
  • India’s LT-LEDS is premised on expanding its nuclear power capacity by at least three-fold in the next decade.
  • These steps are consonant with India’s “five-decade journey” to net zero, or being carbon neutral by 2070 - a commitment made by Indian Prime Minister at Glasgow, where the 26th COP 2021 was held.
  • Strategic Low-Emissions Development Transitions - Low Carbon Development of Electricity Systems Consistent with Enhanced Development Benefits
  • Develop an Integrated, Efficient, Inclusive Low-Carbon Transport System
  • Promoting Adaptation in Urban Design, Energy and Material-Efficiency in Buildings, and Sustainable Urbanisation
  • Promote Economy-Wide Decoupling of Growth from Emissions and Development of an Efficient, Innovative Low-Emission Industrial System
  • CO2 Removal and Related Engineering Solutions
  • Enhancement of Forest and Vegetative Cover Consistent with Socio-Economic and Ecological Considerations.
  • Economic and Financial Aspects of Low-Carbon Development
  • Related Links - Mission LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment)

Reference

  1. The Hindu | Atomic energy, hydrogen power India’s net zero plan
  2. Business Standard | India submits long-term low emission development strategy at COP27
  3. UNFCCC | India's Long-Term Low-Carbon Development Strategy
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