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Prelim Bits 18-10-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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October 18, 2022

Mission LiFE

The Indian Prime Minister with the UN Secretary-General jointly launched the events related to the Mission LiFE (Lifestyle for Environment).

  • The concept of Lifestyle for Environment (LiFE) was introduced by Indian PM during UNFCCC - COP26 at Glasgow in 2021.
  • LiFE is an international mass movement to protect and preserve the environment.
  • LiFE envisions replacing the prevalent 'use-and-dispose' economy (governed by mindless and destructive consumption) with a circular economy (defined by mindful and deliberate utilization).
  • Approach of LiFE Campaign
    1. Focus on Individual Behaviours - Make life a mass movement (Jan Andolan) by focusing on behaviours and attitudes of individuals and communities
    2. Co-create Globally - Crowdsource empirical and scalable ideas from the best minds of the world, through top universities, think tanks and international organisations
    3. Leverage Local Cultures - Leverage climate-friendly social norms, beliefs and daily household practices of different cultures worldwide to drive the campaign
  • Pro-Planet People - LiFE plans to leverage the strength of social networks to influence social norms surrounding climate.
  • So, the Mission plans to create and nurture a global network of individuals, namely ‘Pro-Planet People’ (P3).
  • The Mission intends to nudge people to undertake simple acts in their daily lives that can contribute significantly to climate change.
  • It will have a shared commitment to adopt and promote environmentally friendly lifestyles.
  • Through the P3 community, the Mission seeks to create an ecosystem that will reinforce and enable environmentally friendly behaviours to be self-sustainable.

References

  1. https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/uns-antonio-guterres-to-start-india-visit-from-mumbai-meet-pm-modi-in-gujarat-101666018235255.html
  2. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/world-economic-forum-modi-calls-for-making-mission-life-a-global-mass-movement-to-fight-climate-change/articleshow/88958798.cms
  3. https://www.niti.gov.in/life

Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index 2022

The ‘Global Multidimensional Poverty Index 2022: Unpacking deprivation bundles to reduce multidimensional poverty’, was released by the UNDP-Human Development Report Office.

  • The Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) is an international measure of acute poverty covering over 100 developing countries.
  • The Global MPI was developed by Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) with the UN Development Programme (UNDP).
  • The global MPI was developed for inclusion in UNDP’s flagship Human Development Report in 2010.
  • It has been published annually by OPHI and in the HDRs since 2010.
  • The MPI tracks deprivation across 3 dimensions and 10 indicators:

mpi2022

Highlights of G-MPI 2022

  • Globally, 4.1 million poor people are deprived in all 10 MPI indicators.
  • More than 45.5 million poor people (predominantly South Asia) are deprived in only these four indicators - nutrition, cooking fuel, sanitation and housing.
  • Nearly 41 million poor people (mostly Sub-Saharan Africa) have deprivation profile in six standard of living indicators.

India specific findings

  • The report also shines a light on the significant reductions of poverty in India, which shows how the SDG Target 1.2 - to reduce poverty by at least 50% by 2030 - is possible.
  • In India, 41.5 crore people exited poverty between 2005/2006 and 2019/2021.
  • India’s MPI value and incidence of poverty were both more than halved.

 

2005-2006

2015-2016

2019-2021

MPI value

0.28

0.122

0.069

Incidence of poverty

55%

27.7%

16.4%

  • 22.8 crore in India still multi-dimensionally poor, of whom 9.7 crore are children
  • Bihar, the poorest State in 2015/2016, saw the fastest reduction in MPI value in absolute terms.

References

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/415-crore-indians-exited-multi-dimensional-poverty-since-2005-06/article66023269.ece
  2. https://ophi.org.uk/global-mpi-2022/

PMJAY-MA Yojana Ayushman cards

The Prime Minister kick-started the distribution of PM Jan Arogya Yojana (PMJAY) - Mukhyamantri Amrutam (MA) Yojana Ayushman cards in Gujarat.

‘Mukhyamantri Amrutam’ is Gujarat state scheme launched in 2012 and rebranded as Mukhyamantri Amrutam Vatsalya (MAV) Yojana.

With the launch of the AB-PMJAY, Gujarat integrated with the AB-PM-JAY scheme in 2019 with the name PMJAY-MA Yojana.

Ayushman cards

  • Ayushman cards are health insurance cards to avail free treatment and health benefits.
  • In simple words, an Ayushman card is a 5 lakh rupee ATM.
  • This is ATM card will keep giving benefits every year.
  • Over a period of 30-40 years, there is a guarantee of 1.5-2 crore worth of treatment (5 Lakhs every year).
  • Ayushman cards are given to the beneficiaries of PMJAY-MA as per National Health Authority guidelines.
  • The beneficiaries under both the schemes - Mukhyamantri Amrutam (MA) and PMJAY Yojana - became eligible for co-branded PMJAY-MA cards.
  • The introduction of PMJAY-MA will enable the people of Gujarat to avail benefit of free treatment even outside Gujarat.

Ayushman Bharat-PM Jan Arogya Yojana

  • Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (AB-PMJAY) was launched in 2018.
  • It is the largest health insurance scheme in the world providing coverage of up to Rs. 5 lakh per family per year.
  • It covers for primary, secondary and tertiary care hospitalization without any cap on the family size and age.
  • To know more about ‘AB-PMJAY’ scheme, click here.
  • Related Links - Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission, PM Ayushman Bharat Health Infrastructure Mission

References

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1868557
  2. https://vikaspedia.in/health/nrhm/national-health-mission/ayushman-bharat%E2%80%93pm-jan-arogya-yojana
  3. https://government.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/governance/pm-modi-kickstarts-distribution-of-pmjay-ma-yojana-ayushman-cards-in-gujarat/94933093

‘One Nation, One Fertilizer’ scheme

The Prime Minister launched "One Nation One Fertiliser" during the event of PM Kisan Samman Sammelan 2022.

The Prime Minister also launched Indian Edge, an e-magazine on fertilisers.

  • "One Nation One Fertiliser” is also known as Pradhan Mantri Bharatiya Jan Urvarak Pariyojana.
  • Under this scheme companies must market all subsidised fertilisers under a single brand 'Bharat' across the nation.
  • This scheme ensures affordable quality fertilizer of ‘Bharat’ brand to the farmers.
  • With the launch of this scheme, India will have a common bag design across the country like Bharat urea, Bharat NPK, and so on.
  • Benefits - The One Nation One Fertiliser scheme will prevent the criss-cross movement of fertilisers and reduce high freight subsidies.
  • There is no product differentiation among different brands for each type of fertilizer as they are marketed as single brand.
  • So the concept of ‘One Nation, One Fertiliser’ will help farmers overcome their confusion over brand-specific choices.
  • To know more about ‘One Nation, One Fertilizer’ scheme, click here.

References

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/pm-modi-inaugurates-one-nation-one-fertilizer-scheme/article66024102.ece
  2. https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/pm-unveils-one-nation-one-fertilizer-scheme/article66024067.ece
  3. https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/blexplainer/bl-explainer-all-you-wanted-to-know-about-pmbjp/article65825594.ece

Prosecution for Defamation

The Supreme Court held in a judgment that high constitutional functionaries, from the President of India to government Ministers, can prosecute his or her defamer as individuals under Section 199 of CrPC.

  • Defamation is the act of communicating false statements about a person that injure the reputation of that person when observed through the eyes of ordinary man.
  • Defamation is an offence under both the civil and criminal law in India.

Section 499 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 defines what is defamation and its exceptions.

  • Section 199 of the Code of Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC) provide for the prosecution of defamation.
  • Under Section 199 of CrPC, an ordinary citizen (private individual), needed to file a complaint with the local Magistrate to fight defamation.
  • Whereas Section 199 of CrPC provides a ‘special procedure’ for a constitutional functionary to initiate prosecution for defamation.
  • Special Procedure - A public prosecutor had to initiate prosecution for defamation for them after getting prior sanction from the State or Central government.
  • The prosecutor then filed a complaint before a Sessions Court, which had the exclusive power to hear and try the case.
  • Judgment - High constitutional functionaries need not depend on the state machinery to prosecute his or her defamer.
  • They can either choose to go through the special procedure or opt to fight it as a private citizen.
  • The special procedure was in addition to and not in derogation of the right that a public servant always had as an individual.
  • The verdict also said that a political rival’s challenge to a public office holder that he would ‘expose’ the latter’s ‘scam’ would not amount to defamation.

References

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/president-vice-president-or-ministers-can-prosecute-for-defamation-as-individuals-too-sc-judgement/article66023370.ece
  2. https://www.legalserviceindia.com/legal/article-2224-defamation-law-in-india.html
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