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Prelim Bits 19-02-2023 & 20-02-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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February 20, 2023

Munich Security Conference (MSC)

Billionaire investor George Soros has recently made a controversial speech at the Munich Security Conference (MSC) linking Adani and Indian Prime Minister.

  • MSC is an annual conference on global security issues held in February every year, at Munich, Germany.
  • It was founded by Ewald-Heinrich von Kleist at the peak of the Cold War (1947-1991).
  • United Front Against Russia - Started in 1963, the conference initially focused on military issues and was attended by the western countries.
  • Its main objective is to display a united front in their struggle with Soviet communism.
  • After the cold war - MSC expanded its agenda by including issues such as climate change and migration.
  • It also started to invite leaders from eastern nations, including Russia, India and China.

MSC 2023

  • For the first time in 20 years, Russia and Iran was not invited to the MSC 2023 conference following the ongoing Russia-Ukraine Crisis and brutal suppression of protests by women in Iranian cities.
  • India participated in the MSC 2023.


The Indian Express | George Soros-PM Modi controversy

Aadi Mahotsav 2023   

Prime Minister Shri. Narendra Modi has recently inaugurated the ‘Aadi Mahotsav’ in the Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium, Delhi.

  • It is a National Tribal Festival that aims to showcase tribal culture, celebrate the spirit of tribal culture, crafts, cuisine, commerce and traditional art.
  • It is an annual initiative of the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation Limited (TRIFED), under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
  • Shree Anna - Since 2023 is being celebrated as the International Year of Millets, a special focus in the Mahotsav will be on showcasing Shree Anna grown by tribals.
  • In the event, NSTFDC disseminate information on various schemes and financial support being provided for Scheduled Tribes.


  • National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC).
  • It was set up in 2001 under the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.
  • It works for the socio-economic and educational upliftment of Scheduled Tribes (STs).
  • It also provides for the better self-employment avenues so that they can become economically independent and self-reliant.
  • It devises and implements financial assistance schemes exclusively for the tribal.
  • These schemes are for providing loans to the poor STs at concessional rates of interest and on soft terms & conditions.
  • For helping tribal students to pursue higher education, loans are offered which are subsidized by the Ministry of Human Resources Development.


  1. PIB | PM inaugurates Aadi Mahotsav
  2. India Today | What is Aadi Mahotsav?

Amendments in Organ Transplant Rules

Union Health Ministry has recently eased the organ transplant rules to allow persons above 65 years to receive organs from a dead donor.

Organ Donation

  • Organ Donation is the gift of an organ to a person with end stage organ disease and who needs a transplant.
  • The organs that can be donated are, Liver, Kidney, Pancreas, Heart, Lung, Intestine.
  • The tissues that can be donated are, Cornea, Bone, Skin, Heart Valve, blood vessels, nerves and tendon etc.
  • There are two types of organ donation
  1. Living Donor Organ Donation: A person during his life can donate one kidney, a portion of pancreas and a part of the liver.
  2. Deceased Donor Organ Donation: A person can donate multiple organ and tissues after (brain-stem/cardiac) death. His/her organ continues to live in another person’s body.

India conducts the 3rd highest number of organ transplants in the world.


  • Early Status - There is no bar on persons above 65 years for living donor transplants, where family members donate organs like kidneys and livers.
  • But they couldn’t register to receive organs from a deceased donor as per guidelines of NOTTO.
  • Current Status - Guidelines are now being revised to allow the elderly to access organ from a dead donor.
  • While preference will still be given to younger recipients but those above the age of 65 are not completely barred from the process as earlier.
  • Significance - A study shows over 40% of those in need of kidney transplants worldwide are over the age of 65.

Organs from deceased donors accounted for nearly 17.8% of all translants in 2022 in India.

NOTTO (National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation)

  • It is a national level organization set up under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • It was constituted as per the Transplantation of Human Organs (Amendment) Act, 2011.
  • It has two divisions:
    1. National Human Organ & Tissue Removal and Storage Network
    2. National Biomaterial Centre


  1. NOTTO | FAQ’s
  2. The Indian Express | Govt ends age-65 cap for receiving organ

Exercise Dharma Guardian

The 4th edition of India-Japan bilateral Army exercise ‘Dharma Guardian’ began at Camp Imazu in Shiga province, Japan.

  • Exercise Dharma Guardian is an annual training event with Japan.
  • It is crucial and significant in terms of global security challenges.
  • It will enable the two armies to share best practices in tactics, techniques and procedures of conducting tactical operations under a UN mandate.

Other Exercises

  • JIMEX – Exercise between Indo-Japan naval forces
  • Veer Guardian – Exercise between Indo-Japan air forces


  1. The Hindu | India-Japan Army exercise
  2. The Time of India | India, Japan army exercises begin

Feathering in Aircraft

The recent Yeti Airlines aircraft crash in Nepal was preliminarily reported due to the unusual feathered position of Propellers.

  • During engine failure or an in-flight engine shutdown, the affected engine no longer produces thrust - the power that propels the aircraft forward.
  • In the meantime, the air hitting the giant propeller blades produces enormous drag - a force that acts in the opposite direction of thrust.
  • With zero/reduced thrust and enormous drag, the glide performance and airspeed of the plane will be severely impaired.
  • To tackle the situation, pilots change the pitch/angle of the propeller blades.
  • This helps to slice the airflow in a more or less parallel motion, like a knife, and not hit the air flatly.
  • This reduces the drag, increases the gliding distance, and prevents the airspeed from decaying below unsafe limits.
  • This is called the ‘feathering’ of propellers.



The Indian Express | What is ‘feathering’?


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