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Prelim Bits 19-10-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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October 19, 2022

2nd India-Africa Defence Dialogue

The 2nd India-Africa Defence Dialogue was organised at Gandhinagar, Gujarat, as part of the 12th DefExpo 2022.

  • India-Africa Defence Dialogue (IADD) was institutionalised at DefExpo 2020 to be held biennially during successive DefExpos.
  • The IADD explores new areas of convergence for mutual engagement, including in areas like capacity building, training, cyber security, maritime security and counter terrorism.
  • The first-ever India-Africa Defence Ministers Conclave was held in Lucknow, in conjunction with DefExpo 2020.

In IADD 2020, a Joint Declaration named ‘Lucknow Declaration’ was adopted.

IADD 2022

  • In 2nd IADD 2022, 50 African countries participated.
  • They adopted a ‘Gandhinagar declaration’ as an outcome document.
  • The Gandhinagar Declaration charted out new areas for enhancing the India-Africa defence and security partnership.
  • India and African countries as important stakeholders in ensuring a safe and secure maritime environment, especially in the Indian Ocean Region.
  • India offered ‘India-Africa Security Fellowship Programme’ for experts from African countries through Manohar Parrikar Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis.

References

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1869035
  2. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/we-do-not-believe-in-making-or-becoming-a-client-or-satellite-state-rajnath-at-india-africa-defence-dialogue/article66027784.ece
  3. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/defence/pm-modi-to-inaugurate-defexpo2022-in-gujarat-lay-foundation-stones-of-various-development-projects/articleshow/94955082.cms

Giraffe in India

A recent genealogical study was conducted in Kolkata zoo, for the giraffe herd brought to India by the British.

  • Giraffes are exotic species to India and are conserved under captivity.
  • The British brought northern giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis) from their African colonies to India 150 years ago.
  • Now giraffes in India comprise a captive population of 29 giraffes in 11 zoos across the country.
  • A recent study at Kolkata zoological garden shows that these giraffes may belong to different variety of species.
    1. Nubian giraffes -  IUCN status - Critically Endangered
    2. Rothschild giraffe - IUCN status - Endangered
  • The Nubian giraffes are believed to be among three sub-species of the Northern giraffe.

Northern Giraffe

  • Distribution - Eastern South Sudan and South-Western Ethiopia Kenya and Uganda.
  • Habitat - Giraffes are usually found in groups and inhabit savannahs and woodlands.
  • Food Habit - They mainly eat seeds, leaves and fruits.
  • Their food source is leaves, fruits and flowers of woody plants, primarily acacia species, which they browse at heights most other herbivores cannot reach.
  • Life-Span - About 23 to 25 years in wild and 32 to 40 years in captivity
  • Threat – Hunting, habitat destruction and fragmentation
  • Conservation Status - IUCN Status (Vulnerable)

References

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/giraffes-brought-to-india-by-british-may-belong-to-endangered-species/article6602875ece
  2. https://kolkatazoo.in/alipore/zoo-mammals.php
  3. https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/9194/136266699

World health Summit 2022

The annual international health conference World Health Summit 2022 is being held in Berlin, Germany.

  • For the first time, the World Health Organization co-organised the summit this year.
  • World Health Summit 2022 aimed to
  1. Strengthen exchange,
  2. Stimulate innovative solutions to health challenges,
  3. Position global health as a key political issue and
  4. Promote a global health conversation in the spirit of the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
  • At the World Health Summit 2022, several global leaders committed to donate $2.54 billion for eradicating polio.
    1. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation pledged to Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI).
    2. Rotary International and countries the United States, Germany and France have also pledged to eradicate polio.

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) is the largest international public health initiative led by national governments with six core partners.

To know more about polio eradication, click here.

World Health Summit

  • The World Health Summit was founded in 2009 and held annually since then.
  • It is a unique international strategic forum for global health, held in Berlin, Germany.
  • It brings together stakeholders from politics, science, the private sector, and civil society from around the world to set the agenda for a healthier future by inspiring innovative solutions for better health and well-being for all.
  • Similar Topics - Global Health Summit 2021

References

  1. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/health/world-health-summit-global-leaders-pledge-2-5-billion-for-polio-eradication-85518
  2. https://www.who.int/news-room/events/detail/2022/10/16/default-calendar/world-health-summit-2022
  3. https://www.worldhealthsummit.org/

One Health Joint Plan of Action

The ‘Quadripartite’ of One Health Framework unveiled the five-year One Health Joint Action Plan (2022-2026).

  • The One Health Quadripartite is a collaborative framework to coordinate their respective efforts using a One Health approach, and support their respective members in also doing so.
  • Quadripartite comprises of –
  1. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),
  2. The UN Environment Programme (UNEP),
  3. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and
  4. The World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH).

One Health is an integrated, unifying approach that aims to sustainably balance and optimise the health of humans, animals, plants and ecosystems.

  • The Joint Plan of Action is first joint plan on One Health.
  • The plan will create a framework and integrate systems and capacity to collectively better prevent, predict, detect and respond to health threats
  • The plan is valid from 2022-2026.
  • It is aimed at mitigate the health challenges at global, regional, and country levels.
  • Six key areas were focused on in the plan are:
    1. One Health capacity for health systems
    2. Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic epidemics
    3. Endemic zoonotic
    4. Neglected tropical and vector-borne diseases
    5. Antimicrobial resistance and the environment
    6. Food safety risks

References

  1. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/environment/big-push-for-one-health-fao-unep-who-animal-health-body-lay-out-plan-85511
  2. https://www.who.int/news/item/17-10-2022-one-health-joint-plan-of-action-launched-to-address-health-threats-to-humans--animals--plants-and-environment#:~:text=The%20One%20Health%20Joint%20Plan,animal%2Dplant%2Denvironment%20interface.
  3. https://www.onehealthcommission.org/en/why_one_health/history/

GI Tag for Nihonshu

The Japanese Embassy has filed an application seeking for Geographical Indication (GI) Tag for a Japanese product (nihonshu) in India, for the first time.

  • Nihonshu /Japanese sake is a special and valuable alcoholic beverage made from fermenting rice.
  • People of Japan traditionally drink nihonshu on special occasions, such as festivals, weddings or funerals, but it is also consumed on a daily basis.
  • Thus, it is an integral part of the lifestyle and culture in Japan.
  • The sake market is the 2nd largest brewed liquor market in Japan.
  • Making of nihonshu - 3 main raw materials are required.
  1. Rice,
  2. Koji-kin (a type of fungal spore) and
  3. Water
  • The rice and koji used should originate in Japan.
  • The production of nihonshu follows an alcoholic fermentation method called parallel multiple fermentation.
  • GI Tag for foreign products - Several foreign products have been given GI tag in India so far.
  • Earlier, only 9 foreign products were given GI Tags in India.
  • In 2021, 12 foreign products were issued Geographical Indications (GI) tag by the GI Registry. Few of them are,
  1. A German beer (Muncener Bier),
  2. Italian veined blue cheese (gorgonzola),
  3. A plant resin (Chios Mastiha) from Greece and
  4. A variety of seed cone (zatecky chmel) from the Czech Republic

Geographical Indication Tag

  • A geographical indication (GI) is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.
  • The qualities, characteristics or reputation of the product should be essentially due to the place of origin.
  • The registration of a geographical indication is valid for a period of 10 years.
  • Darjeeling tea became the first GI tagged product in India.
  • Geographic Indication (GI) is defined under Article-23 and 24 of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) Agreement of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
  • India is a member of the WTO and thus enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act, 1999 which came into force from 2003.
  • To know more about GI Tags, Click here.

References

  1. https://madrastribune.com/2022/10/18/geographical-indication-tag-sought-for-nihonshu-an-alcoholic-beverage-from-japan/
  2. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/gi_background_e.htm
  3. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/51-products-get-gi-tag-german-beer-among-12-entrants-from-europe/articleshow/86840085.cms
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