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Prelim Bits 21-01-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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January 21, 2023

World Economic Forum

The annual summit of World Economic Forum (WEF) kicked off in Davos, Switzerland.

  • The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a non-governmental a non-profit organisation based in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • WEF is known for its annual summit in Davos, Switzerland.
  • The Forum strives in all its efforts to demonstrate entrepreneurship in the global public interest while upholding the highest standards of governance.
  • Founder Chairperson - Economist Klaus Schwab founded the WEF in 1971 and has been its chairperson since then.
  • WEF partnersThe WEF is largely funded by its partnering corporations.
  • The WEF provides a platform for these corporations to shape the future, accessing networks and experts to ensure strategic decision-making on the most pressing world issues.
  • WEF also partners with public subsidies.
  • Major reports published by WEF:
    • Global Competitiveness Report
    • Global IT Report
    • Global Gender Gap Report
    • Global Energy Transition Index
    • Global Risk Report
    • Global Travel and Tourism Report
  • Davos - Davos is a town located on the Swiss Alps which hosts the annual WEF’s meeting.
  • Davos brings together some 3,000 paying members and selected participants for up to 5 days every January to discuss global issues across 500 sessions.
  • Significance of Davos - It has been used as a location for pivotal international diplomacy as leaders are able to break tensions in the town.
  • For instance, in 1988 Greece and Turkey avoided war, when the two signed the now famous Davos Declaration.

The annual Future Investment Initiative (FII), Saudi Arabia’s flagship investment conference is popularly known as “Davos in the desert”.


  1. Indian Express - Why the WEF summit is held in Davos

Gandhi Smarak Bhawan

The police arrested the in-charge of Gandhi Smarak Bhawan in Sector 16, for misappropriating the sponsorship funds received by the centre on Gandhi Jayanti last year.

  • Gandhi Smarak Bhawan is spread over a 5,000 sq. yards area in Sector 16, Chandigarh.
  • It is one of the 9 units of Gandhi Smarak Nidhi, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal.
  • Inception - Gandhi Smarak Nidhi, Punjab, Haryana, Himachal is a trust which was constituted after the assassination of Mahatma Gandhi in 1948.
  • In February 1949 the Trust was registered with 24 leaders of the country as founder Trustees.
  • They include Dr Rajendra Prasad, Pt Jawaharlal Nehru, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, Maulana Abdul Kalam Azad and Shri Jagjivan Ram, among others.
  • In 1963, the Punjab State Gandhi Smarak Nidhi was registered as an independent trust named Gandhi Smarak Nidhi Punjab.
  • The Trust was renamed to Gandhi Smarak Nidhi Punjab, Haryana & Himachal Pradesh, when Punjab state was divided into 3 states.
  • Purpose - To further the manifold constrictive activities in which Gandhi was interested, and to preserve and propagate his teachings.


  1. Indian Express - What is the case of diversion of funds from the GSB
  2. Gandhi Smarak Nidhi

National Export Co-operative Society

The National Export Cooperative to be established with initial capital of Rs 500 crore will be the largest of the 3 proposed national cooperative societies.

  • The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) approved the setting up of 3 national-level multi-state cooperatives.
  • The cooperatives will be established under the Multi State Cooperative Societies (MSCS) Act 2002.
  • These are -
    1. National Multi-state Export Society
    2. National Multi-state Cooperative Society for Organic Products
    3. National Level Multi-state Seed Cooperative Society
  • The National export cooperative will have five promoters, they are
    1. Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF)
    2. National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd (NAFED)
    3. National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC)
    4. Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited (IFFCO)
    5. Krishak Bharati Co-operative Limited (KRIBHCO)
  • These 5 promoters will invest Rs 100 crore each making it the largest of the 3 proposed national cooperative societies.
  • The Society will work as an export house for handicrafts, handlooms, khadi and other products.
  • It ensuring enhancement of income of the cooperative member entrepreneurs
  • Nano fertilizers produced by IFFCO and dairy products from Amul will be among the first few products that are expected to be exported by the Society.
  • The Society will be different from the Export Promotion Councils.

Export Promotion Councils 

Other 2 Cooperatives


Shared Capital

National Multi-state Cooperative Society for Organic Products






NCCF - National Cooperative Consumers’ Federation of India Limited

Rs. 500 crore


Rs. 100 crore


National Level Multi-state Seed Cooperative Society





NDDB - National Dairy Development Board

Rs. 250 crore


  1. The Hindu - National Export Co-operative to export  in 3 months
  2. Indian Express - National Export Cooperative to be established

Exercise Cyclone - I

The first-ever joint exercise between the special forces of the India and Egypt named ‘Exercise Cyclone-I’ is in progress in Rajasthan.

  • Exercise Cyclone - I is the first exercise of its kind bringing the Special Forces of India and Egypt on a common platform.
  • The first edition is being carried out at Jaisalmer in Rajasthan for 14 days.
  • The exercise aims to bolster defence co-operation between the two nations.
  • The exercise engages both the contingents on professional skill sharing and Special Forces interoperability in desert terrain.
  • It also conducts counterterrorism, reconnaissance, raids, and other Special Forces operations in a mechanised warfare setting as well as surgical strikes.
  • India - Egypt Relation - The joint exercise would provide an insight into the culture and ethos of both armies.
  • It also fosters military cooperation and interoperability to further strengthen the diplomatic relations between India and Egypt.
  • The only other bilateral exercise between India and Egypt is 'Desert Warrior', a joint exercise of Air forces of both the nations.
  • Egyptian President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi will be the first Egyptian President to grace the Republic Day celebrations (2023) as the chief guest.


  1. PIB - Indo-Egypt Joint Training Exercise Cyclone - I
  2. Business Standard - Joint exercise between India and Egypt


Researchers at the University of California have proposed a method called ‘pantranscriptome’ for analysing RNA sequencing data.

  • RNA mapping - The most commonly recognized function of RNA is to synthesize proteins via translation.
  • Scientists discovered that the vast majority of RNA can play roles such as influencing cell structure or regulating genes.
  • The entire RNA landscape is known collectively as the transcriptome.
  • Mapping of transcriptome by RNA sequencing allows to understand an individual’s gene expression.
  • Mapping can be difficult because the RNA sequences can come from non-connected areas of the genome making it challenging to align.
  • Pantranscriptome - Pantranscriptome, an emerging concept of ‘pangenomics’ in the genomics field, combines a transcriptome and a pangenome.
  • Typically, individual’s genome is compared to that of a reference made up of a single, linear strand of DNA bases for its evaluation.
  • Pantranscriptome uses pangenome as a reference to compare an individual’s genome.
  • Pangenome contains genetic material from a cohort of diverse individuals sourced from individuals representing a diversity of biogeographic ancestry.
  •  This gives the scientists more points of comparison for which to better understand an individual’s genomic variation.


  1. The Hindu - What is a ‘pantranscriptome’?
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