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Prelim Bits 21-07-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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July 21, 2022

Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission

  • Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC) is an Autonomous Institution of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • IPC set standards for identity, purity and strength of drugs required from health care perspective of human beings and animals.
  • It publishes official documents for improving Quality of Medicines by way of adding new and updating existing monographs in the form of Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP).
  • It further promotes rational use of generic medicines by publishing National Formulary of India.
  • The IP Reference Substances are the official standards issued by the IPC.
  • IPRS act as a finger, print for identification of an article under test and its purity as prescribed in IP.
  • Biological Reference Substances are standardized against the International Standards and Reference Preparations established by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Indian Pharmacopoeia

  • Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) is published by the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC) on behalf of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  • IP is published in fulfilment of the requirements of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules 1945 there under.
  • It is recognized as the official book of standards for the drugs being manufactured and/or marketed in India.
  • The standards of the IP are authoritative in nature and are enforced by the regulatory authorities for ensuring the quality of drugs in India.
  • During quality assurance and at the time of dispute in the court of law the IP standards are legally acceptable.

IP 2022

  • IP 2022 contains a total of 92 new monographs. This has led to the total number of 3,152 monographs in the current edition of IP.
  • In addition, 12 new general chapters have been introduced.
  • Several monographs and general chapters have also been revised to update them as per current global requirements.
  • The harmonisation of standards with global standards is expected to help IP getting recognised and accepted in foreign countries.

Reference

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/strive-for-global-recognition-for-indian-pharmacopoeia-health-minister/article65589259.ece
  2. https://www.ipc.gov.in/#skltbsResponsive1
  3. https://services.india.gov.in/service/detail/website-of-indian-pharmacopoeia-commission

Micronesia

The Federated States of Micronesia is one of the latest places on Earth to experience an outbreak of Covid-19, after two and a half years of successfully protecting itself from the virus.

  • Micronesia is a small island country in the western Pacific Ocean.
  • It is located in the Micronesia sub-region of Oceania of the Pacific.
  • It is composed of more than 600 islands and islets in the Caroline Islands archipelago.
  • It is divided roughly along cultural and linguistic lines into the four island states of Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei (where the capital Palikir is located), and Kosrae
  • The Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) is an independent, sovereign nation made up of these four island states.
  • Also known as the Carolines, it is a scattered archipelago of small islands that are divided between Micronesia and the Republic of Palau.

micronesia

Reference

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/everyday-explainers/explained-micronesia-remote-pacific-islands-succumbed-covid-outbreak-8041817/
  2. https://www.britannica.com/place/Micronesia-republic-Pacific-Ocean
  3. https://gov.fm/

Tetrapods

Residents of buildings on Marine Drive, the iconic 3-km promenade in south Mumbai, complained of “unusual vibrations”, during a recent high tide, that are the result of the relocating tetrapods as part of the Coastal Road Project.

  • Tetrapods are four-legged concrete structures that are placed along coastlines to prevent coastline erosion and water damage.
  • Also known as wave breakers, Tetrapods were first used in France in the late 1940s to protect the shore from the sea.
  • These are large structures weighing between 2 and 10 tonnes.
  • They are typically placed together to form an interlocking but porous barrier that dissipates the power of waves and currents.
  • These are placed next to each other to act as flood barriers protecting the sea line from powerful waves that can cause destruction.
  • Tetrapods, each weighing about 2 tonnes, were placed along Marine Drive in the late 1990s.

tetrapods

Reference

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/tetrapods-unusual-vibrations-marine-drive-in-mumbai-8041863/
  2. https://www.mumbailive.com/en/infrastructure/bmc-to-reinstall-tetrapods-in-the-aftermath-of-vibrations-complaints-at-marine-drive-74340
  3. https://www.newindianexpress.com/states/tamil-nadu/2019/nov/03/14000-tetrapods-to-protect-thiruvottriyur-coast-from-coastal-erosion-2056217.html

GOAL 2.0

The second phase of the GOAL Programme (GOAL 2.0) was launched with an aim to digitally upskill tribal youth by promoting entrepreneurship and opening up opportunities for them using digital technology.

Tribal population constitutes about 8.6% of the total population in India.

  • GOAL (Going Online as Leaders) is a joint initiative of Ministry of Tribal Affairs and Meta (formerly Facebook).
  • It aims at digital empowerment of tribal youth and women through concept of mentor and mentee.
  • Goal 1.0 - The first phase of the GOAL programme was launched as a pilot project in May 2020.
  • In Phase-I, the digital mentorship was provided online by attaching one mentor to 2 mentees.
  • The mentees were provided with 40+ hours of training across 3 course pillars:
    1. Communication & Life Skills;
    2. Enabling Digital Presence, and
    3. Leadership & Entrepreneurship.
  • The programme is fully funded by Meta (Facebook India). The mentees were also given a smart phone and Internet Connectivity by Facebook.
  • Goal 2.0 - Based on learnings from Phase-I, there is change in the design in Phase-II.
  • Rather than inviting applications to become mentees under the scheme, Goal 2 program will be open to all people from tribal communities.
  • The program aims to upskill and digitally enable tribal youth via Facebook live sessions and Meta Business Coach, a digital learning tool.
  • There will be special focus on more than 10 lakh members of 50000 Vandhan Self Help Groups. They will be digitally trained with regard to market demand, packaging, branding and marketing of their products.
  • The GOAL 2.o will enable maximum participation and percolation of benefits of the training within the tribal youth by providing Chatbot, need-based online sessions from industry experts in different fields as per mentees’ requirements.
  • The GOAL 2.o programme is fully funded by Meta (Facebook India).
  • Implementation - Ministry of Tribal Affairs in coordination with Ministry of IT and Electronics, will be providing 6 digital classes in each of the 175 EMRS schools selected under the program.
  • The project is being implemented by ERNET, which is an autonomous organization under MeiTY through STC funds available with MeITY and 10% funding is being done by NESTS.

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1842799
  2. https://www.financialexpress.com/education-2/meta-tribal-affairs-ministry-launches-second-phase-of-goal-2-0-to-digitally-skill-tribal-youth/2576239/
  3. https://www.news9live.com/utility/goal-20-launched-heres-all-you-need-to-know-about-the-tribal-youth-programme-179678

Transplantation of Human Organs & Tissues Act, 1994

  • This Act provides for regulation of removal, storage and transplantation of human organs & tissues for therapeutic purposes and for prevention of commercial dealings in human organs & tissues.
  • THOA Act (Now, THOTA Act) is now adopted by all States except Andhra and J&K, who have their own similar laws.
  • The subject of artificial organs is not regulated under this Act.
  • Under THOA, source of the organ may be:
    1. Near Relative donor (mother, father, son, daughter, brother, sister, spouse)
    2. Other than near relative donor: Such a donor can donate only out of affection and attachment or for any other special reason and that too with the approval of the authorisation committee.
    3. Deceased donor, especially after Brain stem death. Other type of deceased donor could be donor after cardiac death.
  • THOTA Amendment Act, 2011 has included tissues along with the Organs. ‘Near relative’ definition has been expanded to include grandchildren, grandparents.

About 0.5 million people in India die every year from causes that could have been prevented by organ transplants that were not available to them.

India needs more organ donations as only 0.01% Indians have given consent to donate their organs after their death.

National Organ Transplant Program

  • The Government of India has implemented National Organ Transplant Program (NOTP),
    1. To establish a network of organ and tissue transplant organizations at national, regional and state level link them with transplant & retrieval hospitals and tissue banks and
    2. To maintain a national registry of organ & tissue donors and recipients to provide an efficient system for procurement and distribution of organs & tissues from deceased donors.
  • Under the program, support is provided to establish new or to upgrade existing organ & tissue transplant and retrieval facilities and to establish tissue banks.

National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation

  • The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO) functions under the National Organ Transplant Program of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  • The NOTTO facilitates procurement, allotment, and distribution of organs within India.
  • It is an all-India apex body for coordination and networking for procurement and distribution of organs/tissues and transplantation.
  • It has following two divisions:
    1. National Human Organ and Tissue Removal and Storage Network
    2. National Biomaterial Centre.

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1842747
  2. https://main.mohfw.gov.in/sites/default/files/Act%201994.pdf
  3. https://www.financialexpress.com/lifestyle/health/india-needs-more-organ-donations-as-only-0-01-indians-have-given-consent-to-donate-their-organs-after-death/2300173/
  4. https://dghs.gov.in/content/1353_3_NationalOrganTransplantProgramme.aspx#:~:text=Transplantation%20of%20Human%20Organs%20Act,have%20their%20own%20similar%20laws.
  5. https://notto.gov.in/about-us.htm
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