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Prelim Bits 22-10-2021 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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October 22, 2021

SBM-Urban 2.0

The Union Cabinet approved the continuation of Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) till 2025-2026.

  • The vision of the mission is to achieve a “Garbage Free” Urban India.
  • Over the next 5 years, the focus of SBM-U 2.0 will be on,
    1. Sustainability of Open Defecation Free (ODF) outcomes,
    2. Achieving scientific processing of Solid Waste in all cities, and
    3. Managing Wastewater in cities with less than 1 lakh population in Census 2011 [cities not covered under Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)].
  • This Mission is implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).

Area

Fund sharing pattern between Centre and States

Cities with million plus population

25:75

Cities with population between 1-10 lakhs

33:67

Cities with population less than 1 lakh

50:50

Union territories without legislature

100:0

Union territories with legislature

80:20

  • Expected Outcomes in Sanitation:
    • All statutory towns to become at least ODF+
    • All cities with <1 lakh population to be made ODF++
    • Putting in place systems and processes so that all wastewater is safely treated and optimally reused and no untreated wastewater pollutes water bodies
  • Expected Outcomes in Solid Waste Management - All cities to achieve at least 3-star Garbage Free certification.

The ODF+ Protocol introduced by MoHUA in 2018 focuses on the cleanliness and functionality of community and public toilets

The ODF++ Protocol introduced by MoHUA in 2018 focuses on complete faecal sludge and septage management

The Water+ Protocol introduced by MoHUA in 2019 focuses on wastewater treatment and its optimum reuse

SBM-Urban 1.0

  • The SBM-Urban 1.0 Mission (2014) had the following objectives,  
    1. Eradication of open defecation in all statutory towns
    2. 100% scientific management of municipal solid waste in all statutory towns
    3. Effecting behaviour change through Jan Andolan
  • Over the last 7 years, the Mission has reached all corners of the country and has changed the lives of countless citizens with its ‘people first’ focus.
  • The Mission has prioritized the needs of women, transgender communities, and persons with disabilities (Divyangs).
  • Over 70 lakh household, community and public toilets have been built thus providing safe and dignified sanitation solutions for all.
  • Urban India was declared open defecation free in 2019.
  • Following this, the Mission has propelled urban India on the path of sustainable sanitation with over 3,300 cities and over 960 cities being certified ODF+ and ODF++ respectively.
  • Cities are progressing towards Water+ certification under the Water+ Protocol.
  • This Mission has been aided through 100% door-to-door waste collection in 97% wards and source segregation of waste being practised by citizens in letter and spirit across 85% wards.

Swachhata App

Recenly, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) has launched the revamped version of Swachhata App 2.0

  • Swachhata App is an initiative of the Swachh Bharat Mission in association with the MoHUA (2016)
  • It is a digital citizen grievance redressal platform.
  • Working - Once a citizen posts a complaint using the citizen app, Sanitary inspectors will look into the issue and get it resolved.
  • A photo of the resolved status is also uploaded for the citizen to check and provide feedback.
  • Action on the complaints may vary depending on the categories. Action for most complaints will be initiated from 6 hours of registration.
  • Categories that involve the service level agreement of 12 hours includes, uncleared Dustbins/Garbage dumps, Garbage vehicle not arrived, Sweeping, No electricity or water in public toilets, Toilets Blockage).
  • The category that involves the service level agreement of 48 hours is the “Dead animals” category.

Swachh Survekshan

  • It is the world’s largest urban cleanliness survey covering over 4,000 Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) initiated under SBM-Urban in 2016.
  • It monitors the performance of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan, and accelerates ground level implementation to achieve sanitation outcomes.
  • The survey nudges the citizens to take ownership and initiative to clean urban India’s monuments and heritage spots.

AMRUT 2.0

The Union Cabinet approved the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation 2.0 (AMRUT 2.0) till 2025-26.

First launched in 2015, AMRUT Mission aims to provide tap connections & sewer connections to every household in Mission cities.

  • AMRUT 2.0 targets 100% coverage of water supply by providing household tap connections in all 4,378 statutory towns.
  • 100% coverage of household sewerage/ septage management in 500 AMRUT cities targeted.
  • Rejuvenation of water bodies and urban aquifer management will be undertaken to augment sustainable fresh water supply.
  • Recycle and reuse of treated wastewater is expected to cater to 20% of total water needs of the cities and 40% of industrial demand.
  • Under the Mission, fresh water bodies will be protected from getting polluted to make natural resources sustainable.
  • AMRUT-2.0 Mission has been mandated for cities having million plus population to take up Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects worth minimum of 10% of their total project fund allocation.
  • The PPP project could be on Annuity/ Hybrid Annuity / BOT Model.

AMRUT 1.0

  • Launched in 2015, AMRUT Mission is the first focused national water Mission for providing tap connections and sewer / septage connections to every household in 500 Mission cities (60% of the urban population).
  • All cities having population above 1 lakh are covered under Mission.
  • AMRUT aims to increase the amenity value of cities by developing greenery & well maintained open spaces & reduce pollution by switching to public transport or constructing facilities for non-motorized transport.
  • This Mission is implemented by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).
  • Master Plans of AMRUT cities are prepared based on GIS through a sub-scheme. National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Hyderabad has been roped in to provide satellite photos and for digitization of city maps.
  • To ensure efficient land use, a sub-Scheme on Local Area Planning and Town Planning Scheme (LAP/TPS) is in progress in 25 cities.

Mount Manipur

The Union government rechristened Mount Harriet, a historical tourist spot in the Andaman and Nicobar islands, as ‘Mount Manipur’.

  • Mount Harriet is the third highest peak in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • It served as the summer headquarters of the Chief Commissioner during British Raj.
  • Close by the Mount Harriet is the Mount Harriet National Park known for its wide variety of birds.
  • Manipur’s connection to Mt. Harriet - Anglo-Manipur War of 1891 was fought between the kingdom of Manipur and the British.
  • Manipuris who had fought the British in the War, including Maharaja Kulachandra Dhwaja Singh, were exiled to a hillock in the Andaman Islands.
  • The battle was triggered by a coup in the palace of Manipur, which had been marked by internal factionalism in the years leading up 1891.
  • The British government took advantage of the “internal dissension” among the princes of the royal family.
  • The war led to Manipur becoming a princely state under the indirect rule of the British crown.
  • Original name - Mount Harriet is believed to be named after British artist, Harriet Christina Tytler, who was the wife of Robert Christopher Tytler, a soldier who served in the British Indian Army.

Xenotransplantation

New York surgeons have successfully transplanted a kidney from a genetically engineered pig into a brain-dead human.

Xenotransplantation or heterologous transplant is the process of transplanting living cells, tissues or organs between different species.

Such cells, tissues or organs are called xenografts or xenotransplants.

  • During the observation, the kidney began functioning and producing large amounts of urine within minutes of being connected to the person’s blood vessels.
  • Creatinine which is cleared from the blood by the kidney dropped from 1.9 to 0.8 demonstrating that the kidney was functioning optimally.
  • If found compatible in the long run, this process of Xenotransplantation could help provide an alternative and additional supply of organs for people facing life-threatening diseases.

GalSafe Pigs

  • The transplant used a kidney that was obtained from a pig that had undergone editing to knock out a gene that codes for a sugar molecule called Alpha-gal.
  • Alpha-gal is not normally found in humans and this molecule can elicit a devastating immune response in humans.
  • The pigs with this gene alteration are called GalSafe pigs.
  • GalSafe pigs have been FDA approved for human use for those who have pork allergies and also for use in pharmacology.
  • Generally, pigs are preferred, as they are easier to genetically modify.
  • They also breed better with large litter, grow faster, and are less likely to transmit infections. The size of their organs is also similar to humans.

 

Source: PIB, The Hindu, The Indian Express, Times of India

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