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Prelim Bits 24-04-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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April 24, 2023

Logistic Performance Index (LPI), 2023

India has climbed six places on the World Bank's Logistic Performance Index (LPI) 2023.

  • Indian government had announced PM Gati Shakti initiative, a National Master Plan for multimodal connectivity, in 2021 to reduce logistics cost and boost the economy by 2024-25.
  • In 2022, the National Logistics Policy (NLP) was launched to ensure last-mile delivery, end transport-related challenges, save time and money of the manufacturing sector and logistics sector.
  • These policy interventions are fructifying, which can be seen in India's jump in LPI and its other parameters.


  • India was ranked 44th on the index in 2018 and has now climbed to 38th in the 2023 listing.
  • India's performance has drastically improved from 2014, when it was ranked 54th on the LPI.
  • India's rank moved up five places in infrastructure score from 52nd in 2018 to 47th in 2023.
  • It climbed to the 22nd spot for international shipments in 2023 from 44th in 2018 and moved 4 places up to 48th in logistics competence and equality.

Logistics Performance Index

  • It is released by the World Bank, which is an interactive benchmarking tool that helps countries to identify the challenges and opportunities they face in their performance on trade logistics.
  • The LPI 2023 allows for comparisons across 139 countries.
  • The 2023 LPI for the first time measures the speed of trade with indicators derived from big datasets tracking shipments.


  1. The Hindu │ India climbs 6 places on World Bank's Logistic Performance Index
  2. World Bank │ Logistics Performance Index

Global Buddhist Summit 2023

The two day Global Buddhist Summit 2023 concluded successfully in New Delhi with the New Delhi Declaration.

  • The focus of the Global Buddhist Summit was on modes of disseminating and internalizing universal values.
  • The summit focused to find ways to work together, to address the burning challenges both within and globally and offer a sustainable model for future of the world.

New Delhi Declaration

  • The Declaration reinforces the points highlighted by the Prime Minister in his opening address.
  • Buddha’s message – There has been general agreement that the Buddha’s message of Peace, Well-being, Harmony and Compassion for Universal Peace need to be highlighted.
  • Non-violence – The declaration calls upon all nations, organizations and individuals to work towards creating a world free from conflict, violence and war.
  • Environment – The declaration urges the governments and individuals to take action to reduce carbon emissions, protect biodiversity, and preserve natural resources for future generations.
  • Teachings of the Buddha – For the welfare of all, Members of Sangha, Buddhist leaders, Scholars, followers and institutions can play a significant role in addressing the multi-faceted crisis.
  • The values of Buddhism need to be inculcated among youths to rejuvenate the society towards Vasudeva Kutumbakam.


  1. PIB │The two day Global Buddhist Summit 2023 concludes
  2. The Hindu │ Dalai Lama attends first global Buddhist conference

PSLV-C55 mission

ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C55) carrying Singapore’s TeLEOS-2 as primary satellite and Lumelite-4 as a co-passenger satellite was launched successfully.

  • In this mission, TeLEOS-2 a Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite will be the primary satellite and Lumelite-4 a technology demonstration nano-satellite will be co-passenger satellite.
  • PSLV-C55 is a dedicated commercial PSLV mission of NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), for the international satellite customer from Singapore.
  • PSLV-C55 mission will carry out in-orbit scientific experiments by using the spent PS4 stage as an orbital platform.

PSLV Orbital Experimental Module (POEM)

  • Poem is the spent fourth stage (PS4) of the launch vehicle that would be used as an orbital platform to carry out scientific experiments through non-separating payloads.
  • While the 1st 3 stages are jettisoned into the ocean after they push the mission to desired orbit, the four-stage remains in orbit and becomes space junk.
  • This is the third time that PS4 will be used after satellite separations as a platform for experiments.
  • There will be non-separable payloads mounted on MSA (multi satellite adapter).
  • Payloads will be powered ON by a command, after all satellites are separated.
  • The platform will have solar panel mounted around PS4 tank which will be deployed after confirmation of the stage achieving stabilization.
  • The deployment of the solar panels will be through a ground command.
  • The platform will ensure that the deployed solar panel points towards the Sun optimally using appropriate sun pointing mode, which will increase the power generation capability of the platform.
  • The power will be provided to payloads and avionic packages based on their requirements.

TeLEOS-2 Satellite

LUMELITE-4 Satellite

  • TeLEOS-2 will be able to provide all-weather day and night coverage, and capable of imaging at 1m full-polarimetric resolution.
  • It aims to augment Singapore’s e-navigation maritime safety and benefit the global shipping community.


  1. The Hindu │ ISRO PSLV-C55 successfully launches two Singapore satellites into orbit
  2. The Hindu │ ISRO to send uncrewed rocket as part of Gaganyaan Mission
  3. India Today │The experimental mission India is launching to space with PSLV-C55

State of the Global Climate report, 2022

Rising global temperatures in 2022 contributed to more frequent and intense extreme weather events all around the world, according the State of the Global Climate 2022 report.

  • The report is released annually by the United Nation’s World Meteorological Organization.


  • Sea level rise – The report recorded that sea levels rising at an annual average of 4.62 millimetres in the past decade.
  • The world’s glaciers melted at dramatic speed last year, with global sea levels rising at double the pace they did two decades ago.
  • La Nina – The La Nina cooling weather phenomenon failed to ease the temperature hikes, with the past eight years considered the highest mean temperatures on record.
  • Oceans – Oceans were meanwhile the warmest on record, with 58% of ocean surfaces experienced a marine heatwave.
  • India – Heatwaves in India in 2022 brought down the yield of wheat crops, significantly pushing the Government of India to ban wheat exports from the country.
  • The heatwaves have become 30 times more likely due to climate change.

World Meteorological Organisation

  • The WMO is an intergovernmental organization that originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO).
  • It was established in 1950 and later became the specialised agency of the United Nations.
  • It is headquartered in Geneva with World Meteorological Congress as the supreme body.


  1. Down to Earth │ Climate change worsened extreme weather events in 2022
  2. The Indian Express │Past 8 years ‘warmest on record’
  3. WMO │ State of the Global Climate in 2022

Rule of law Index

Rule of law

  • The notion behind the rule of law is to curb the exercise of arbitrary power by anyone.
  • United Nations – The rule of law is a principle of governance in which all persons, institutions and entities, public and private, including the State itself, are accountable to laws that are publicly promulgated.
  • WJP – World Justice Project (WJP), an independent, multidisciplinary organization working to advance the rule of law worldwide, lays out 4 broad outcomes, if the rule of law prevails in a country.
  • Accountability – Implying that the government as well as private actors are accountable under the law.
  • Just Law – Implying that the law is clear, publicised, and stable and is applied evenly.
  • It ensures human rights as well as property, contract, and procedural rights.
  • Open Government – Implying that the processes by which the law is adopted, administered, adjudicated, and enforced are accessible, fair, and efficient.
  • Accessible and Impartial Justice – Implying that justice is delivered timely by competent, ethical, and independent representatives.

Rule of law index

  • It is released annually by the World Justice Project.
  • The index measures people’s perceptions and experiences of the rule of law in 140 countries and jurisdictions.
  • To build this index, the WJP looks at eight factors, which are further sub-divided into 44 sub-factors.
  • Constraints on government powers – This includes things like how effectively does the legislature or the judiciary deal with the government.
  • Absence of corruption – This essentially ascertains if public offices are being used for private gains.
  • Open Government – This includes things such as the right to information and laws and government data are well publicised.
  • Fundamental rights – This also includes whether the due process was followed.
  • Order and security – Whether crime is effectively controlled and civil conflict limited etc.
  • Regulatory enforcement – Things like whether regulations are effectively enforced etc.
  • Civil justice – Includes factors such as whether people can afford and access civil justice,
  • Criminal justice – Includes factors such as whether due procedures are followed etc.
  • The index values range between 0 and 1 with 1 being the score for complete adherence to the rule of law.

Status of India

  • India’s overall score in the 2022 report is 0.5 and its global rank is 77 out of 140 countries.
  • Within the South Asia region, India is placed third, behind Nepal and Sri Lanka, out of six countries; Bangladesh, Pakistan and Afghanistan being the other three.
  • Among the 38 countries that fall under the same income bracket, namely lower-middle income, India is ranked 9th.
  • Countries such as Senegal, Ghana, Indonesia and Ukraine were ahead of India as of the 2022 report.
  • Uttar Pradesh (UP) – The WJP Index does not provide sun-national ranks.
  • However, the India Justice Report (IJR), a collaborative effort between various organisations ranks UP at 18 among the 18 large and mid-sized states of India.


  1. The Indian Express │What is the rule of law and where do India and UP rank?
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