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Prelim Bits 25-02-2022 | Daily UPSC Current Affairs

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February 25, 2022

Fire Ready Formula

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) in its report on wildfire called on global governments to adopt a new ‘Fire Ready Formula’.

  • The “Fire Ready Formula” was recommended by the UNEP as it warned that the incidences of wildfires would rise in the future.
  • This formula envisages that 66% (two-third) of spending must be devoted to planning, prevention, preparedness and recovery.
  • The remaining 34% (one-third) can be spent on response.

New “Fire Ready Formula”

Budget item

% share of the total on  wildfire management  recommended

Planning

1%

Prevention

32%

Preparedness

13%

Response

34%

Recovery

20%

  • Currently, direct responses to wildfires typically receive over half of related expenditures, while planning receives less than 1%.
  • The true cost of wildfires include financial, social, and environmental.
  • Findings - The UNEP report projected that the number of wildfires is likely to increase by up to 14% by 2030. It is projected to spike by 33% by 2050. It would rise by 52% by 2100.
  • Objective - The UNEP in its report has called for strengthening international and regional cooperation on wildfires.
  • It has also recommended for the development of an international standard for wildfire management.
  • It has also recommended that the integrated wildfire management is the key to adapting to current and future changes in global wildfire risk.

Reference

  1. https://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/natural-disasters/unep-s-fire-ready-formula-invest-more-in-preventing-wildfires-81669
  2. https://www.unep.org/news-and-stories/press-release/number-wildfires-rise-50-2100-and-governments-are-not-prepared

Nettur Petti

  • Nettur Petti or aada petti is a handcrafted, ornamental box created by traditional craftsmen in Kerala.
  • The Nettur petti is often made with brass embellishments and its lid is shaped like the roof of a traditional house in Kerala.
  • In the past, the lid of the petti was made from a single piece of wood with no joint at all. But now, four pieces of wood are joined for the lid.
  • In the past, the Nettur Petti was made only in teak or rosewood, but now it is made using jack, wild jack and mahogany also.
  • It was once used by the royals, wealthy families and aristocrats as well as in temples as a safe box to store valuables and ornaments.
  • Nettur petti derives its name from Nettur, a place that now exists both in Ernakulam and Kannur districts (Kerala) and in Tirunelveli district (Tamil Nadu).

Reference

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/kerala/nettur-petti-keralas-unique-handcrafted-box/article6508047ece
  2. https://www.thehindu.com/life-and-style/nettoor-petti-being-made-by-vv-suresh-kumar-in-his-workshop-in-thiruvananthapuram-kerala/article65055255.ece
  3. https://www.keralahandicrafts.in/product/nettoor-box-nettoor-petti

Prevention of Sexual Harassment at Workplace

The 1st Workshop on Prevention of Sexual Harassment at Workplace was held under the aegis of Department of Legal Affairs, Ministry of Law & Justice.

Sexual harassment at workplace is the violation of the Fundamental Rights under Article 14, 21 of the Constitution. 

  • Vishaka guidelines - The issue sexual harassment at work place gained a definite momentum after the guidelines passed by the Supreme Court in the matter of Vishaka and Others vs. State of Rajasthan in 1997.  
  • These guidelines gave sexual harassment a legal definition describing what forms of conduct actually constitute sexual harassment.
  • These legally-binding guidelines impose three key obligations on employing institutions - prohibition, prevention, and redress.
  • The institutions must establish a Complaints Committee that would look into matters of sexual harassment of women at the workplace.
  • Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 broadens the Vishaka guidelines.
  • Related Links - #Metoo Movement; Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act 2013; She-Box; SHe-box Portal
  • Similar Links - Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act

Reference

https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1800647

Doxxing

Meta’s oversight board suggested that Facebook and Instagram must make strict doxxing rules.

  • Doxxing is publishing and analysing others' personal information on the internet with a malicious intent that can reveal the person's real identity making them victims of harassments and cyber attacks.
  • Generally, doxxing is used to shame or punish people who would rather stay anonymous, because of their controversial beliefs or other types of non-mainstream activity.
  • The term doxxing (sometimes spelled doxing) is a longtime hacker term derived from “dropping dox” or documents about an adversary.
  • Motivations range from personal revenge to political ends.
  • Some doxers act with the intent of exposing criminals or perpetrators of heinous acts.
  • However, there are plenty of examples of people who have been wrongly doxxed and harmed as a result.

Reference

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/technology/strict-anti-doxxing-policies-for-meta/article65045902.ece
  2. https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/doxxing
  3. https://www.usnews.com/360-reviews/privacy/what-is-doxxing

P-8I Aircraft

Aircraft manufacturer Boeing has delivered the 12th P-8I long-range maritime patrol aircraft to the Indian Navy. This completes the follow-on clause for four additional P-8I aircraft contracted in 2016.

  • P-8I Aircraft is a long-range maritime reconnaissance and Anti-Submarine Warfare Aircraft.
  • It is a variant of the P-8A Poseidon aircraft that Boeing company developed as a replacement for the US Navy’s ageing P-3 fleet.
  • With a maximum speed of 907 kmph and an operating range of over 1,200 nautical miles, the P-8Is detect threats and neutralize them if required, far before they come anywhere near Indian shores.
  • Deal - In 2019, the Defence Acquisition Council approved the procurement of the six aircraft.
  • In 2021, the U.S. State Department approved the sale of 6 additional P-8I aircraft and related equipment, a deal estimated to cost $2.42 billion.
  • The six aircraft under discussion will come with extensive upgrades.
  • These P-8Is will come installed with encrypted communication systems since India has signed the foundational agreement Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA) with the U.S.
  • History - The Indian Navy was the first international customer of the aircraft by procuring P-8Is under a $2.2 billion deal in 2009.
  • In 2016, the Navy exercised the optional clause for four more P-8Is in a deal worth over $1billion.
  • The P-8I is an integral part of the Indian Navy’s fleet and has surpassed 35,000 flight hours since it was inducted in 2013.

Reference

https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/navy-gets-12th-p-8i-aircraft-from-boeing/article65082405.ece

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