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Prelim Bits 26-03-2022 | Daily UPSC Current Affairs

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March 26, 2022

Australia’s Defence Space Command Agency

Set up in January 2022, Australia’s new Defence Space Command Agency began functioning.

  • Australia’s new Defence Space Command was set up to achieve strategic space ambitions and lead the effort to assure Australia’s access to space.
  • Mainly, this Agency was set up to counter the growing influence of Russia and China in space. s
  • This Agency is headed by the Air Vice-Marshal Catherine Roberts.

Space Defence

  • Structure - This agency brings members of Air Force, Army, Navy and the Australian Public Service together under an integrated headquarters reporting to the Chief of Air Force, as the Space Domain Lead.
  • This agency will come under the Air Force.
  • The command will be working alongside the Australian Space Agency (ASA); industry partners; and research and scientific institutions.
  • Function - The agency will help Australia in developing and advocating space-specific priorities within the government, industry, allies and even international partners.
  • It will enable Australia in providing training to people to become space specialists and, help it conduct strategic space planning.
  • It will be able to be a part of any developments regarding the refinement of space policy.
  • Australia will be setting scientific and space priorities with the agency in place & will be working towards creating an efficient space architecture.
  • All the operations of the agency will be within the purview of the standards and limitations of the Defence Ministry.

Australian government plans to triple the size of its space sector by 2030.

Reference

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/explained-australia-new-defence-space-command-agency-7835967/
  2. https://theconversation.com/what-will-australias-new-defence-space-command-do-179760
  3. https://www.janes.com/defence-news/news-detail/australia-stands-up-defence-space-command-releases-strategy

Bucharest Nine (B9)

The “Bucharest Nine” wrote an article in a popular Indian newspaper to acquaint the Indian public with the basic facts on the ground about the premeditated, unprovoked and unjustified Russian aggression in Ukraine.

  • The “Bucharest Nine” or “Bucharest Format” or “B9” was founded in 2015, and takes its name from Bucharest, the capital of Romania.
  • The “Bucharest Nine” is a group of nine NATO countries in Eastern Europe that became part of the NATO after the end of the Cold War.
  • It is also regarded as the “Voice of the Eastern Flank” in the NATO alliance.
  • The group was created at the High-Level Meeting of the States from Central and Eastern Europe in Bucharest on the initiative of,
    1. Klaus Iohannis, who became the President of Romania in 2014,
    2. Andrzej Duda, who became President of Poland in 2015.
  • B9 offers a platform for deepening the dialogue among the participant allied states, in order to articulate their specific contribution to the ongoing processes across the NATO.
  • Composition of B9 include, Romania, Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and the three Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
  • All nine countries were once closely associated with the now dissolved Soviet Union, but later chose the path of democracy.
  • Romania, Poland, Hungary, and Bulgaria are former signatories of the now dissolved Warsaw Pact military alliance led by the Soviet Union.
  • (The other Warsaw Pact countries were the erstwhile Czechoslovakia and East Germany, and Albania.)
  • Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were part of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

B9

 

Reference

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/everyday-explainers/bucharest-nine-nato-countries-eastern-europe-explained-7836360/
  2. https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/news/president-von-der-leyen-participates-bucharest-nine-b9-summit-warsaw-and-special-nato-summit-2022-02-25_en

Nari Adalat

  • Nari Adalat (Women’s court) is a gender-sensitive, informal Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) platform.
  • It is an innovation of the Mahila Samakhya of the Ministry of Human Resource Development (now Ministry of Education), in response to the rise in the number of cases of violence against women.
  • ‘Nari Adalat’ is one of the components included in ‘Mission Shakti’, an integrated women empowerment programme.
  • [‘Mission Shakti’ is carefully designed to touch upon and address all concerns and issues of women, responsively, in a comprehensive manner, and during their entire lifecycle continuum.]
  • Started on a pilot basis, ‘Nari Adalat’ is providing women with an ADR Mechanism for resolving petty cases (harassment, subversion, curtailment of rights or entitlements) faced by them at local level.
  • Working - The panel of women adjudicators who are commonly known as Nyaay Sakhis (friends of justice) adjudicate the complaints filed either by the aggrieved women herself or by her family or friends.
  • These courts strictly follow natural justice principles.
  • Previously (till 2014-2015), these matters were handled by the Parivarik Mahila Lok Adalats (PMLAs).
  • These Lok Adalats redressed issues related to family affairs, matrimonial disputes, bigamy, succession, and motor vehicle accident disputes related to labour.
  • Also, till 2014-2015, the National Commission for Women (NCW) used to provide financial assistance to NGOs for organising PMLAs Thereafter, the scheme has been discontinued by the NCW.

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1809709
  2. https://mib.gov.in/filmsdivisionvideo/nm0475-nari-adalat
  3. https://aif.org/nari-adalats-changing-lives-at-the-community-level/

Central Equipment Identity Register

  • The Central Equipment Identity Registry (CEIR) tries to connect the 15-digit International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) database of all the mobile Operators.
  • [From your mobile, you can check the IMEI number by dialling *#06#.]
  • CEIR acts as a central system for all network Operators to share black listed mobile devices so even if the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card in the device is changed these devices won’t work in any network.
  • The Department of Telecommunications intends to implement the CEIR with the aim to
    1. Curtail the counterfeit mobile phone market,
    2. Discourage mobile phone theft,
    3. Protect consumer interest and
    4. Facilitate law enforcement authorities for lawful interception.
  • Functions - The CEIR project facilitates the blocking and tracing of lost and stolen mobile phones using the IMEI.
  • The traceability data for the IMEIs will be made available to police of the respective LSA to facilitate recovery of handsets.
  • People can request the CEIR system for blocking the IMEI number.
  • Accessibility - CEIR is a multi-stakeholder system where respective stakeholders have a limited access as per their defined roles and responsibilities.
  • [Stakeholders include the Department of Telecommunications, Telecom Service Providers, Police, Mobile phone manufacturers and mobile phone subscribers.]
  • Currently, this accessibility includes
    1. Information to the subscriber about the make & model corresponding to IMEI of his/her mobile handset,
    2. Information to mobile phone manufacturers about genuineness of IMEI during import of consignment of mobile phones etc.
  • The CEIR project has been launched in Delhi, Mumbai and Maharashtra licensed service areas (LSAs) in a phased manner.

Know Your Mobile

  • Through Know Your Mobile (KYM), one can check the validity of their mobile device even before buying it.
  • IMEI is written on the mobile packaging box or the mobile bill/invoice.
  • If the status of the mobile is shown as Black-listed, duplicate or already in use, please avoid buying the mobile.
  • KYM could be used through any of the following 3 methods - SMS (Type KYM and send to 14422), app or web portal.

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1809586
  2. https://www.ceir.gov.in/Home/index.jsp
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