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Prelim Bits 28-03-2019

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March 28, 2019

Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index

  • Global MPI 2018 Report is prepared by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative
  • MPI is the product of the following factors
  1. Poverty rate as a percentage of the population.
  2. Intensity as the average share of deprivations that poor people experience.
  • If someone is deprived in a third or more of 10 weighted indicators, the global index identifies them as “MPI poor”.
  • According to the report Bihar was the poorest state in 2015-16, with more than half its population in poverty.
  • The four poorest states of India according to the report are Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh.


  • The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network it advocates for change and connects countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life for themselves.
  • It provides expert advice, training and grants support to developing countries, with increasing emphasis on assistance to the least developed countries.
  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of UNDP is a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity.

Hump Backed Mahseer

  • The Humpback (or) (or) Tor remadeviiis the largest known species of Mahseer and, across the world, is only found in the Kaveri river basin.
  • The effects of construction of dams, regulated flows, deforestation, drought, pollution and sediment transport has a great toll on this river water species.
  • Recently the fish has been added to the IUCN Red List as Critically Endangered
  • This fish is also called as tiger of the water found in Pambar, Kabini and Bhavani rivers of the Karveri basin in the states Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

IUCN Red list

  • International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international organization (NGO) based in Switzerland.
  • IUCN is working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
  • The organization is best known for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
  • The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, founded in 1964, is the world’s most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
  • When discussing the IUCN Red List, the official term “threatened” is a grouping of three categories: Critically Endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable.

Artificial Leaves

  • Recently researchers have built artificial leaves which mimic the process that occurs in real plants, turning CO2 into breathable oxygen through photosynthesis.
  • The artificial leaf converts the carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide and oxygen.
  • Artificial leaf under sunlight when placed inside a water-filled capsule with a semi-permeable membrane, the water evaporates through the membrane.
  • This process slowly sucks in carbon dioxide through the membrane, where the device can get to work.
  • From here, the oxygen can be released into the air or collected, while the harmful gas can be pulled from the device and used to create synthetic fuels like methanol.
  • The artificial leaf unit is able to function in the outside environment like a natural leaf which is 10 times more efficient than even natural eaves.


Source: The Hindu, Indian Express, India times

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