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Prelim Bits 28-12-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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December 28, 2022

Delimitation of Assam Constituencies

The Election Commission of India (ECI) initiates delimitation of Assembly & Parliamentary Constituencies in the State of Assam.

  • Earlier in 2021, the delimitation commission redrew the Constituencies of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The Union Ministry of Law & Justice requested for the delimitation exercise for Assam constituencies.
  • Upon this request, the Election Commission of India has initiated the delimitation exercise of Assembly and Parliamentary Constituencies in Assam.
  • The delimitation of constituencies will be done as per the Section 8A of the Representation of the People Act, 1950.

Section 8A of the Representation of the People Act, 1950 allows for delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly constituencies in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur or Nagaland.

  • The Article 82 and Article 170 of the Constitution provides for the readjustment of Parliamentary constituencies and Assembly constituencies respectively.
  • As per the Delimitation Act, 2002, the 2001 census figures will be used for the readjustment of Parliamentary and Assembly constituencies in Assam.
  • Reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes will be provided as per Articles 330 and 332 of the Constitution of India.
  • The entire guidelines and methodology for the purpose of the delimitation process would be designed and finalised by the Election Commission.
  • A complete ban will be issued on creation of new administrative units in Assam from January 1, 2023, for this purpose.

The last delimitation of constituencies in the Assam was done on the basis of census figures of 1971 by the then Delimitation Commission in 1976.


  1. PIB - ECI initiates delimitation of Constituencies in Assam
  2. Indian Express - Delimitation of Assam’s constituencies
  3. The Hindu - ECI to begin delimitation exercise in Assam


The Delhi High Court restrained Sadar Laboratories from manufacturing and selling beverages under the impugned trademark ‘Dil Afza’.

  • A trademark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by a business organisation to distinguish its products or services from those of other entities.
  • It serves as a badge of origin exclusively identifying a particular business as a source of goods or services.
  • The term of a trademark is 10 years but can be renewed in India from time to time.
  • Trademark infringement - The unauthorised usage of a sign that is identical or deceptively similar to a registered trademark.
  • Strong Trademark - A mark is said to be strong when it is well-known and has acquired a high degree of goodwill.
  • The degree of the protection of any trademark changes with the strength of the mark.
  • Trademarks confer exclusive rights to use and are protected by intellectual property rights

Trade Marks Registry

  • The Trade Marks Registry was established in India in 1940.
  • It administers the Trade Marks Act of 1999 and the rules thereunder.
  • The main function of the Registry is to register trademarks which qualifies for registration under the Act and Rules.
  • The Registry provides for better protection of trade mark for goods and services and also to prevent fraudulent use of the mark.


  1. The Hindu - What is the Delhi HC verdict on ‘Rooh Afza’ trademark?
  2. DPIIT – Intellectual Property India – Trade Mark

Brain-eating Amoeba

The first infection from ‘brain eating amoeba’ or Naegleria fowleri, has been reported in South Korea

  • A South Korean man who had returned from Thailand to his home country died from ‘brain eating amoeba’ or Naegleria fowleri.
  • The Naegleria fowleri infection, also known as the ‘brain eating amoeba’ which can cause infections in the brain.
  • Naegleria fowleri is an amoeba (a single-celled living organism) that is found in soil and in warm freshwater bodies like lakes, rivers and hot springs.
  • Spread - It was first discovered in Australia in 1965.
  • So far, Naegleria fowleri has been found in all continents and declared as the cause of PAM in over 16 countries, including India.
  • Infection - The amoeba enters the human body through the nose and then travels up to the brain.
  • Once Naegleria fowleri goes to the brain, it destroys brain tissues and causes a dangerous infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM).
  • Fatality - The 'primary amoebic meningoencephalitis' (PAM) is widely reported to be fatal.
  • PAM is difficult to detect in its early stages and it spreads rapidly.
  • The disease is usually discovered after the patient has died.

Notably, from 1962 to 2021 only four of 154 people in the United States survived after contracting the infection.

  • Symptoms - The first signs of PAM start showing within one to 12 days after the infection and patients exhibit 2 stages of symptoms.
    • Initially patients can experience severe frontal headaches, fever, nausea, and vomiting.
    • In the second stage patients experience stiff neck, seizures, altered mental status, and hallucinations.
    • In serious cases the patient can even slip into a coma
  • Transmission  - There is no evidence of human to human transmission.
  • It does not spread via water vapour or aerosol droplets
  • Treatment and Vaccine - There is currently no vaccine but the disease can be treated with proper drug combinations.


  1. Indian Express - ‘Brain-eating amoeba’ kills South Korean man
  2. Times of India - Brain-eating amoeba: Death in South Korea
  3. Live Mint -   'Brain-eating amoeba' kills South Korean man

Polar Bear Capital

Polar bears in Canada's Western Hudson Bay are continuing to die in high numbers.

  • Western Hudson Bay in Canada is on the southern edge of the Arctic.
  • Churchill town in Western Hudson Bay is called ‘the Polar Bear Capital of the World'.

The 2021 by air survey in Western Hudson Bay estimated only 618 bears, compared to the 842 in 2016.

  • There is a significant decline in adult female bears and young bears.
  • Reasons for decline - Polar bears rely on arctic sea ice (frozen ocean water) to hunt, reproduce, perch and come up for air.
  • Warming of Arctic due to climate change has left polar bears less sea ice to live, hunt and reproduce.
  • High cub-mortality, less cub to mature, low reproductive rate

Polar Bear

  • Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are the largest bear in the world.
  • They are critical (top) predators in the Arctic and also the best-known face of climate change.
  • Range – Arctic ocean, sea ice, and adjacent coastal countries - Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russian and the United States of America (Alaska)
  • Habitat - Polar bears rely heavily on sea ice for traveling, hunting, resting, mating and, in some areas, maternal dens.
  • Food – Omnivores. Hunt seals.
  • IUCN Status – Vulnerable
  • Threats – Climate change, loss of habitat (Sea ice), habitat fragmentation, industrial impacts.
  • The Polar Bear’s reproductive rate is among the lowest in all mammals.
  • Polar Bears most often give birth to twin cubs and the new-borns are blind.


  1. The Hindu - Polar bears in 'bear capital of the world'
  2. World Wildlife - Polar Bear

MeitY and Online Gaming

The Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY) is appointed as the nodal ministry regulating online gaming in India.

  • The appointment of Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY) as the central regulatory authority will provide clarity and certainty to investors, industry and consumers.
  • In May 2022, MeitY set up an inter-ministerial task force to propose rules for regulating online gaming.
  • The task force recommended the creation of a central regulatory body for the online gaming sector.
  • It clearly defined what games of skill and chance are and bringing online gaming under the purview of the Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002, among other things.
  • MeitY will publish rules for online gaming platforms and start public consultation on the regulations.
  • The decision is in line with the government’s initiative to push for the growth of the animation, visual effects, gaming and comics (AVGC) sector and making India a global hub for online gaming.
  • It is aimed at encouraging technology innovation but also ensuring that no illegal content or services are possible.


  1. Indian Express - MeitY becomes nodal ministry for online gaming
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