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Prelim Bits 31-03-2017

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April 01, 2017

Padma Awards

  • The Government of India instituted two civilian awards-Bharat Ratna & Padma Vibhushan in 1954.
  • The three sub-classes of Padma Vibushan were subsequently renamed as Padma Vibhushan, Padma Bhushan and Padma Shri.
  • Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian award of the country.
  • It is awarded in recognition of the exceptional service/performance of the highest order in any field of human endeavour.
  • The recommendations for Bharat Ratna are made by the PM to the President of India.
  • The number of Bharat Ratna Awards is restricted to a maximum of three in a particular year.
  • The awardee holds seventh position in the order of precedence in India.
  • Padma Awards are conferred on the recommendations made by the Padma Awards Committee, constituted by PM every year. It is headed by the Cabinet Secretary and includes Home Secretary, Secretary to the President and four to six eminent persons as members.
  • Padma Vibhushan is given for exceptional and distinguished service, Padma Bhushan for distinguished service of a high order and Padma Shri for distinguished service.
  • A higher category of Padma award can be conferred on a person only where a period of at least five years has elapsed since conferment of the earlier Padma award. A relaxation can be made by the Awards Committee.
  • The total number of awards should not be more than 120.

International Energy Agency (IEA)

  • IEA is a Paris-based autonomous intergovernmental organization established in the framework of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1974 in the wake of the 1973 oil crisis.
  • It is an important part of global dialogue on energy, providing research, data/statistics, analysis and recommendations on the global energy sector.
  • It acts as a policy adviser to its member states, but also works with non-member countries, especially China, India, and Russia.
  • India recently declared its “Association” status with the International Energy Agency (IEA).
  • The status would facilitate it to participate in meetings of the standing groups, committees and working groups that constitute the IEA governance structure.

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

  • MS is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that disrupts communication between the brain and other parts of the body.
  • The cause is not clear but the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells
  • It is among the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults and occurs more frequently in women.
  • United States Food and Drug Administration has recently approved Ocrevus (ocrelizumab) to treat adult patients with relapsing forms of MS.
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