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Tackling the Maoists

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September 29, 2021

Why in news?

According to the data provided by Ministry of Home Affairs, the geographical influence of Maoists has contracted from 96 districts in 10 States to 41 districts in 2010.

How has the CPI (M) evolved?

  • The People’s War Group and the Maoist Communist Centre of India merged into the CPI (Maoist) in 2004.
  • It managed to consolidate its presence across “Red Corridor” spanning across the central and north-central India, marked by rural deprivation.
  • The CPI (Maoist) has sought to project itself as a revolutionary political movement that sought to rebuild after the failures of the earlier Naxalite movement.
  • Rather than focussing on socio-economic struggles, Maoists relied on waging a military battle against the state to capture power resulting in militarisation of these areas.
  • It led to repression of tribal people both by state actions such as creation of Salwa Judum (disbanded by judicial order) and Maoist authoritarianism.

How Red Corridor region is classified?

  • The Red Corridor area is the area under the influence of Left Wing Extremists (LWE) or Maoists.
  • It is spread across 10 states — Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and some northern fringes of Tamil Nadu
  • These Maoist-affected areas were first classified in 2006.
  • The districts were assessed on parameters like –

1. Violence profile,

2. The kind of logistical and other support provided to maoist cadres

What are the governments’ measures?

  • The governments of the states deployed additional resources and are trying their best to check Maoists’ expansion.
  • A number of awareness campaigns were organised in remote areas which are most vulnerable to Maoist influence.
  • Arrangements for villagers’ training were made and government employment for hundreds was facilitated.
  • Financial aid of around Rs.30 crore annually is given to the districts for various developmental works.
  • Road Connectivity Project for Left Wing Extremism (LWE) Affected Areas has been undertaken by the government.
  • After the killing of 25 CRPF personnel in Sukuma district of Chhattisgarh in 2017, “SAMADHAN doctrine” has been formulated to counter naxalism.
  • Fortified Police Station Scheme was launched by the central government in 10 States to enhance the security of police personnels.
  • Under the Special Infrastructure Scheme, around 120croreswas given to strengthen the special forces.
  • The Home Ministry has provided support to security forces for other facilities such as Helicopters, UAVs etc.
  • The Maoist insurgency still has potency in South Bastar in Chhattisgarh, Andhra-Odisha border and in some districts in Jharkhand.

What are the effects of Left wing extremism (LWE)?

  • Frequent skirmishes have affected the security forces.
  • It has left many tribal civilians caught in the crossfire.
  • Human rights’ violations were reported in naxal prone areas.
  • It has added to the alienation among the poor in these areas.
  • It also has its effect on the government exchequer.
  • LWE widened the backwardness in terms of social and economic development.
  • It affected the democratic setup by hindering the elections.

How can the issue be tackled?

  • Empowerment of tribal people and civil society activists to promote peace in these areas.
  • Expansion of welfare and rights paradigms to limit the movement.
  • Surrendered LWE cadre should be used for intelligence collection to the maximum possible.
  • The trade in minor forest produce needs a closer look in Maoist-affected areas to break the contractor-Maoist nexus.
  • Hence, the country’s best weapon against ultras is extending the welfare state to areas it hasn’t quite reached.

 

Source: The Hindu

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