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Daily Mains Practice Questions 10-03-2023

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March 10, 2023

General Studies – II

Government Policies

1) India is running a clutch of sustainable development programmes for better outcomes. Do you agree with this view? Comment (200 Words)

Refer - Business Line

 

International Relations

2) G-20 must work towards dealing with debt problem at global level. In the context of India’s presidency in G 20, analyse (200 Words)

Refer - Business Line

 

General Studies – III

S & T

3) Indian tech companies should look to chip designs and technologies for which no patent applications have been filed in India. Discuss (200 Words)

Refer - Business Line

 

Enrich the answer from other sources, if the question demands.

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KEY POINTS

·        According to a study published in  The Lancet journal, India is trailing behind in achieving more than 50 per cent of indicators under the SDGs, seven years before the 2030 deadline.

·        The study used the National Family Health Surveys, 2016 and 2021, to assess progress on SDGs in 707 districts of the country.

·        India is running a clutch of sustainable development programmes to improve health outcomes, literacy, access to water and sanitation facilities, and the overall ease of living of its citizens.

·        Schemes like the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) and Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) are broadening access to basic services and aiding sustainable development.

·        India has over six lakh villages. In August 2022, the country reached another milestone with over one lakh villages declared as ODF Plus.

·        This is a big achievement because the process of solid and liquid waste management involves complex technical aspects.

·        The Jal Jeevan Mission, another national priority, seeks to provide potable tap water connections to all households by 2024.

·        This has improved the ease of living of citizens, cut medical costs, and improved their productivity and economic well-being. India aims to eliminate tuberculosis by 2025, and malaria and AIDS by 2030.

 

KEY POINTS

·        Amidst this chaos in India’s neighbourhood and the larger debt crisis in poor and developing countries, it is a bit surprising that the recent G-20 talks have merely skimmed the surface on creating new debt resolution methods.

·        The IMF has mooted its usual set of terms to release $1.1 billion at the outset: raising energy prices; slashing the currency; and raising taxation.

·        Currency devaluation will raise the prices of essentials which are being imported, while exports may not pick up when markets are fickle and the country’s productive capacities are impaired.

·        The G-20 and multilateral agencies have already kicked off such a process. The Debt Service Suspension Initiative was started in May 2020, which was later modified in November that year and dubbed ‘Common Framework’.

·        Given the poor response from the 68 low-income countries for which this window was created, it is evident that some changes are called for. First, the facility must include emerging economies such as Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.

·        A debt restructuring package that is applicable to all creditors must be the goal, with a mechanism that also helps the debtor countries negotiate terms with private lenders.

·        In this respect, the G-20 outcome statement of finance ministers is a trifle disappointing. It appears to go with the status quo of the ‘Institute of International Finance (IIF)/OECD Data Repository Portal’.

KEY POINTS

·        As the chip shortage intensifies, however, it is critical for industries to remain at the forefront of global innovation to find long-term solutions.

·        A patent is a protected form of intellectual property to exclude others for a limited period of time from practising the invention within a territorial boundary  that is, the protection of rights is limited to the country in which the patent has been granted.

·        Though it is legal to imitate and copy certain innovations as discussed above, it may be more desirable to build on existing inventions with new innovations.

·        On the other hand, biotech and chemical patents on novel molecules require that molecules are synthesised, and that experimental data demonstrate reduction to practice.

·        Once the innovation occurs, the immediate next step is to protect that innovation through patents before disclosing, using or selling the product of the invention.

·        The domestic applications filed in China, the US and India in 2020, based on percentage of domestic filings, are 10.2 per cent, 54.9 per cent and 59.2 per cent, respectively.

·        Patenting often leads to licensing and cross-licensing of the patents. An example of patenting and cross-licensing is provided here for better understanding.

 

  

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