Discuss the factors that affect Indian Mansoon and explain its mechanism.



Factors affecting the Indian Monsoon and Its Mechanism


  1. Existence of the Himalayan and the Tibetan plateau:
  • The jet streams that lie about 12 km in the troposphere are bifurcated by the Himalayan Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau
  1. Triangular relief structure of south Indian land mass:
  • This results in two branches of south west monsoon.
  • The Arabian Sea branch covers more area than the Bay of Bengal branch


  • Movement of ITCZ.

  • The differential heating and cooling of the landmass of Asia and the Indian Ocean.
  • Strong vertical air currents from Tibetan plateau.

Direction of rain bearing winds

  • Movement of westerly jet streams to the north of Himalayas.
  • Presence of easterly jet streams in the Indian peninsula.

Seasonal distribution of rainfall

  • Rainfall is mostly dependent on the monsoonal seasons

Amount of rainfall

  • It is not same all over India, it depends upon origin of monsoonal winds.

Form of precipitation

  • The occurrence of heavy-light snow over the Himalayan region, due to artic cold winds.

Global climatic phenomenon

  • El Nino and La Nina.

  • High pressure area in East of Madagascar-It lies in the path of SW monsoonal winds.



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Sai Charan

3 months

Indian Monsoon:

1) South West Monsoon:

- 80% of rainfall we are getting from South West Monsoon.

-In summer land is getting heated and forms a heat low pressure in Indian Main lands.

--This in turn pulls the ocean current from Sea to land.

- Arabian Sea current from the South of Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal current from the South of Andaman Sea flows in to the mainland.

-The Himalayas acts as barrier to these monsoon current and deflects it towards low pressure area causing South West Monsoon Rainfall(May - September)

2) NorthEast Monsoon:

-Same as SWM , Himalayas acts as a Barrier in protecting the heavy Cold current from Northern side.

-During (September - October) the landmass in the northern parts of India is cool so it forms high pressure.

-This high pressure pushes the cold current from the land to sea through Bay of Bengal and Southern States gets rainfall.