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G.S II - Governance

National Higher Education Qualification Framework (NHEQF)

Why in news?

The University Grants Commission (UGC) has finalised the National Higher Educational Qualification Framework (NHEQF), a regulatory reform proposed by National Education Policy 2020.

Status of Higher education in India

  • Despite having the largest base of 900-plus universities in the world, only 15 higher education institutions from India are in the top 1,000 according to QS World Universities Ranking 2022.
  • India has the largest population in the world in the age bracket of 5-24 years with 580 million people, presenting a huge opportunity in the education sector.
  • India has the world’s 2nd largest higher education system, with around 38 million students in 50,000 academic institutions.
  • India aims to double the gross enrolment rates for HEIs from the current 26.3% to 50% by 2035.
  • India is the 2nd largest source of international students (after China) globally.

To know more about higher education in India, click here

What is the historical background of formulating NHEQF?

  • The idea was deliberated at the 60th meeting of the Central Advisory Board of Education in 2012
  • The University Grants Commission (UGC) was assigned the responsibility to prescribe two separate frameworks — the NHEQF and the National Credit Framework.
  • Higher educational institutions are separately required to implement the Academic Bank of Credits as a mandated modality for recognising, accepting, and transferring credits across courses and institutions.
    • NHEQF - National Higher Education Qualification Framework aims to bring changes in the education system right from the school to the higher education levels.
    • NCrFNational Credit framework was jointly developed by the Regulators of School, Skill and Higher Education for accumulation of credit from academics and skill programmes.
    • Academic Bank of Credit (ABC) - It is a digital or virtual or online store-house of academic credit data base of Higher Education Institution.

The Ministry of Labour and Employment developed the National Vocational Qualifications Framework (NVQF) and the Ministry of Education developed the National Vocational Education Qualifications Framework (NVEQF).

What about the draft NHEQF?

  • Based on a set of performance criteria, the NHEQF represents a comprehensive framework that specifies qualification types and framework levels and the expected learning outcomes.
  • Levels - The framework divides education into 8 levels - first 4 (school levels), last 4 (higher education).
  • The first four levels will be taken up under the National School Education Qualification Framework (NSEQF), while the NHEQF includes Level 4.5 to 8 (4.5, 5, 5.5, 6, 7 and 8).
  • Qualification type - It refers to the broad discipline-free nomenclature such as a certificate, diploma, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, and PhD.
  • The NHEQF also incorporates the qualifications from technical and vocational education and training and professional and technical education programmes, except medical and legal education under one qualifications framework.
  • Parameters for assessing – It include generic learning outcomes, constitutional, ethical, and moral values, employment ready skills, entrepreneurship mindset, application of knowledge and skills, etc.
  • Credit system under NHEQF - A credit is a unit by which the coursework done by a student will be measured.
  • To obtain a four year undergraduate programme, students will have to earn a minimum of 160 credits, with a minimum of 40 credits each at level 4.5, 5, 5.5, and 6 of the NHEQF.

What are issues in qualification framework in India?

  • Multiplicity of frameworks – NHEQF, NCF, and ABC are all focussing on similar qualification framework making it confusing.
  • Vague - The eligibility conditions and pathways through which a student can enter a programme at a particular level are vague.
  • Non- Coverage of certain disciplines – Qualification for awarding in disciplines such as agriculture, law, medicine, and pharmacy are not covered under NHEQF.
  • Traces of colonial past – The NHEQF draws abundantly from the Bologna process that led to the European Qualifications Framework and the Dublin descriptors.
  • But the higher education system in India is far more diverse and complex than European contexts and warrants much wider and more intense consultations with the States.
  • Measuring learning outcomes – It may not be measurable by the same yardstick across disciplines.
  • NHEQF fails to recognise that learning and knowledge must go beyond earning a livelihood.
  • Elitist – Those who hold four-year undergraduate degrees with a minimum CGPA of 7.5 are eligible for admission to PhD programmes.
  • Unequal comparison– It places all higher education qualifications on a continuum of 4.5 to 10 and thus equates postgraduate diplomas with four-year undergraduate programmes.
  • Credit system– It mandates that each semester must have a minimum of 20 credits where one credit must comprise 15 hours of direct and 30 hours of indirect teaching.
  • Higher educational institutions with minimal infrastructure and meagre faculty resources may find this challenging.

What lies ahead?

  • Wider and more intense consultations with the States is required as they spend a lot more on education than the Centre.
  • The process of formulating the NHEQF should duly recognise various aspects like the sheer size of the higher education system and the variations in it.



  1. The Hindu| Issues in NHEQF
  2. UGC | NHEQF
  3. University World News| Status of Higher Education in India

G.S III - S & T

Legal Framework for Space Missions

Why in news?

In the wake of the unprecedented space race, there comes a need to look at the international laws and domestic regulations that govern ventures into space.

What are the international laws that govern space ventures?

  • Treaties - 5 United Nations treaties are generally thought to form the bedrock of international space law. It includes
  1. The Outer Space Treaty
  2. The Rescue Agreement
  3. The Liability Convention
  4. The Registration Convention
  5. The Moon Agreement
  • Declarations - There are 5 declarations pertaining to space activities.
    1. Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space - 1963
    2. Declaration governing the use of satellites for television broadcasting
    3. Declaration regarding remote sensing from outer space
    4. Declaration regarding the use of nuclear power sources in outer space
    5. Declaration on international cooperation in space exploration for the benefit of all states, particularly developing countries
  • UNGA resolutions - There are UN General Assembly resolutions, which, though non-binding, help guide international action on the issue and may shape consensus in the space community.
  • Res communis— It is the concept of ownership in common by mankind of certain natural resources.
  • The UN policy brief – It recently recommended the development of a new treaty to ensure peace, security, and the prevention of an arms race in outer space.
  • A UN Summit of the Future – It is scheduled for 2024 in New York, with advancement of the peaceful and sustainable use of outer space a potential area of work.

UN Treaties on Space Ventures

The Outer Space Treaty –1967

  • It is often called the magna carta of space law.
  • Governs the exploration and use of Outer Space only for peaceful purpose.
  • Prohibits the weaponisation of space
  • No claim of sovereignty over any bodies in space
  • Liability on countries for damage caused by any objects launched into space from their territory
  • Countries must help astronauts who are in distress
  • Space installations and vehicles of one nation are to be open to other nations on a reciprocal basis
  • Binding on its signatories

The Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer Space (ARRA) –1968

  • Obligation of nations towards astronauts in distress and emergency situations, and return of space objects and astronauts.
  • It includes cost of rescue and operations as covered in UNCLOS and Salvage Convention.

UNCLOS (United Nations Conventions on the Law of the Sea), 1982 lays down rules governing all uses of the world’s oceans and their resources.

Salvage Convention of 1989, incorporated the "'no cure, no pay" principle under which a salvor is only rewarded for services if the operation is successful.

The Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects –1972

  • Liable to compensate for any damages incurred on the earth’s surface or to aircraft or in outer space.
  • A process to seek settlements regarding claims for the damage.
  • No provision for damage caused by a rocket crashing back down to earth.

The Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space – 1976

  • Register and maintain records about every object launched into space and furnish those information to the U.N.

The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies –1984

  • Using space only for peaceful purposes.
  • Non-disruption of space environments.
  • Countries should also inform UN of the location and aim of any station established on such a body.
  • Moon and its natural resources as Common heritage of mankind.

Of the 5 UN Treaties on Space Venture, India has ratified first four and signed Moon Agreement without ratifying it.

What are the challenges associated with space ventures?

  • India’s Chandrayaan-3 mission highlights the legal gray zone for lunar mining.
  • Loopholes in Space laws – Non-appropriation clause of Outer Space treaty does not explicitly prohibit owning and using resources once they are extracted.
  • Domestic laws – Countries like the U.S., Luxembourg, United Arab Emirates, and Japan permitted companies to claim exclusive ownership over extracted resources.
    • In 2015, the U.S. government introduced the US Commercial Space Launch Competitiveness Act, 2015, recognising the property rights of private entities over space resources, allowing U.S. citizens to claim such rights.
  • Issues with Artemis Accord - Section 10(2) of Artemis Accord violates the principle of non-appropriation principle of Outer Space Treaty.
  • Section 11 of Artemis Accord regarding development of ‘safety zones’ can result in de facto appropriation of lunar areas and the alienation of other states, thus affecting the freedom of exploration and use.
  • The provisions of the Accords are also in conflict with the Moon Agreement which prevents commercial entities from taking possession of lunar natural resources.

Section 10(2) - Signatories affirm that the extraction of space resources does not inherently constitute national appropriation

Section 11 - Signatories will support the development of ‘safety zones’ to ensure that states do not come into conflict with one another.

  • Commercialisation of space mining- In 2020, NASA allowed four companies to extract small amounts of lunar regolith by 2024.
  • Issue of Space Debris - The Kessler Syndrome is when the total amount of space debris will grow, spurred by a chain reaction as collisions lead to more space debris.

As of date, the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs lists 43 nations that have domestic space laws, based on submissions by nations.

What about the domestic space law of India?

  • Space Policy- ISRO released the Indian Space Policy 2023 with the vision to enable, encourage and develop a flourishing commercial presence in space.
  • Other policies - The Indian space industry is also subject to the Satellite Communications Policy, 2000 and the revised Remote Sensing Data Policy, 2011.
  • Legislation - A draft Space Activities Bill was introduced in 2017. However, it lapsed in 2019 with the outgoing Lok Sabha.
  • With increasing inter-planetary missions like Chandrayaan-3 and Aditya L1, it is imperative to have exclusive domestic space laws
  • To serve as a foundation for capacity-building efforts
  • To guide in the development of relevant skills and knowledge
  • To attract investment and promote the growth of a domestic space industry
  • For effective utilization of space resources for societal benefit in various sectors

India’s Space Policy 2023

  • It stipulates that any NGE (Non-Governmental Entities) shall be entitled to possess, own, transport, use, and sell any such asteroid resource or space resource obtained in accordance with applicable law, including India’s international obligations.
  • The ISRO will move out of manufacturing space systems, and instead focus only on advancing space R&D and contributing to areas of space exploration that are of national interest.
  • Manufacturing and operations will be handled by NewSpace India Limited (NSIL) — a public sector unit set up in 2019 under the Department of Space as the commercial arm of ISRO.
  • The Indian National Space Promotion & Authorisation Centre (IN-SPACe) is expected to create a ‘stable and predictable regulatory framework’ that will ensure a level playing field for the NGEs.



  1. The Hindu| Need for Space Laws
  2. The Hindu Business Line| India and Moon Agreement


G.S III - S & T

Digital Public Infrastructure

Why in news?

Recently held G20 meet adopted New Delhi Declaration, which recognised safe and trusted deployment of Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) for enabling service delivery and innovation.

To know about G20 summit 2023, click here

What is DPI?

  • Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) is a set of technology building blocks that drive innovation, inclusion, and competition at scale, operating under open, transparent and participatory governance.
    • Examples – Internet, powered by common protocols like HTTP, HTML, and SMTP.
    • Telecom, with standards like GSM, SMS, CDMA, and IEEE 802.11.
  • Digital system can be developed either as all government or all private.
  • Interoperability, security, maintaining registries and continuous updates are its vital aspects.
  • A strong DPI has 3 foundational systems—identity, payments, and data exchange.

Over 45% of global real-time payments happen in India and over 10 billion transactions happen on UPI each month.

State of India’s Digital Economy Report 2023

It is released by ICRIER-Prosus Centre for Internet and Digital Economy (IPCIDE).

  • Mobile Broadband Subscription – From 2014 to 2021, the rate of increase was over 40% annually.
  • Disparity in digital tools usage – Its adoption is more prevalent among larger businesses.
  • Usage of 3G mobile broadband - Despite the availability to 99% of Indians, not everyone is utilizing it.
  • Rural-Urban divide - The number of active internet users in rural is only about half that in urban areas
  • Gender divide- Only 29% of rural women use the internet while it is 40% for men.

Why DPI is crucial for India’s digital future?

  • Higher growth potential – India is the 2nd largest online market in the world, providing cheapest data rates and has the fastest growing fintech landscape.
  • Digital storage and verification - Products like the Digital Locker, electronic KYC (eKYC) and digital signature on demand (e-Sign) simplifies data storage and authorisation.
  • Digital Inclusion - UPI123Pay of RBI gives feature phone owners an app that enables them with most UPI features.
  • Financial Inclusion – The World Bank estimates that Aadhaar has facilitated financial inclusion.
    • The RBI has even enabled cardless cash withdrawals at ATMs through the UPI app.
  • Interoperable electronic payment systemUnified Payments Interface like BHIM app has empowered for convenient transfer money from one bank account to another bank account digitally and in real-time.
  • Integration of global payments systems - By early 2023, UPI was connected with Singapore’s PayNow system and also with the United Arab Emirates, through Mashreq Bank’s NEOPAY system
  • Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) – The Jan Dhan-Aadhaar-Mobile trinity has played a pivotal role in DBT of welfare subsidies thus reducing the leakages of money from government treasury.
  • Eliminates black markets - DBT has eliminated the black marketing of commodities, with LPG cylinders being the most visible examples.
  • Economic Growth – Digital economy dominates market factors and thereby driving India’s economic growth.
    • The Economic Survey of 2023 suggested that India’s DPI can add around 60-100 basis points to the country’s potential GDP growth rate.

What are the challenges associated with digital transformation?

  • Lack of social infrastructure – Usage gap is driven by poor levels of literacy, affordability and lack of digital skills.
  • Lack of physical infrastructure – Deprived power supply impacts the quality of internet access.
  • Exclusion error – Systemic lacunae in Aadhaar-based digitisation of social security programmes like biometric mismatches or non-possession of Aadhaar can result in denial of benefits.
  • Cyber-crimes and financial frauds – This is due to weakness in the India DPI.

What are the initiatives taken by India in digital sphere?

  • Aadhaar – Launched in 2009, Aadhaar is a 12 digit unique-identity number issued to all Indian residents based on the biometric and demographic data, and acts as a proof of residence.
  • Digital India initiative – In 2015, the ‘Digital India’ initiative was launched to improve online infrastructure and increase internet accessibility among citizens.
  • PM-WANI – It was launched in 2020 to provide ubiquitous and affordable internet connectivity.
  • Unified Payments InterfaceUPI is a system that powers multiple bank accounts into a single mobile application, merging several banking features, seamless fund routing & merchant payments into one hood.
  • CoWin CoWIN is a cloud-based IT solution for planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of Covid-19 vaccination in India.
  • Network to villages – The government has set a target to provide 4G network to all uncovered villages by 2024.
  • Bhashini – The government is building Bhashini, an AI powered language translation platform which will support digital inclusion in India's diverse languages.
  • India Stacks – It is an online global public digital goods depository to ensure no one is left behind.
  • Sanchar Saathi portal - It is an initiative of Department of Telecommunications to empower mobile subscribers and increase awareness about citizen centric Government initiatives.
  • Future prospects – Sector specific DPIs such as account aggregators, Open Network for Digital Commerce, Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission and Agristack.

India plans to build and maintain a Global Digital Public Infrastructure Repository (GDPIR), a virtual repository of DPI for use by other G20 members and beyond.

India proposed the One Future Alliance (OFA), a voluntary initiative aimed to build capacity, and provide technical assistance and funding support for implementing DPI in low and middle income countries.

What lies ahead?

  • Scale up local DPI initiatives by accelerating knowledge and resource sharing to ensure that no one is left behind.
  • Prioritise user-centric design to reduce the risks arising from the use of technology.
  • Foster equitable growth by monitoring the impact of DPIs on vulnerable consumers to prevent the deepening of gaps.



  1. IE| Story of India’s Digital Revolution
  2. IE| Digital Inclusion

Prelim Bits

Prelim Bits 21-09-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

Nuakhai Juhar Festival

Prime Minister greeted the people on the auspicious occasion of Nuakhai.

  • About – Nuakhai is an agrarian festival.
  • The word ‘Nua’ means new and ‘Khai’ means food.
  • Origin It originated during the Vedic period where the sages or Rishis used to talk about Panchyajna.
  • One among them was Pralambana yajna, which means the cutting of new crops and offering them to mother goddess.
  • Regions The festival is mostly celebrated by the people of Western Odisha and Southern Chhattisgarh.
  • It is known as Navakhai Parv in Chhattisgarh.
  • Observed on – It is observed in the month of Bhadrapada or Bhadraba (August–September), the day after the Ganesh Chaturthi festival.
  • In Odisha, on the occasion, the new rice is offered as Bhog to Goddess Laxmi.

Some other festivals in India that celebrate the harvest include Onam, Makar Sankranti, Baisakhi, Lohri, Ladakh Harvest festival, Pongal, Ugadi, Bihu among several others.

  • Nuakhai celebration starts with the preparation for the festival almost two weeks before the festival.
  • Nuakhai is understood to have nine colours and as a consequence nine sets of rituals are followed as a prelude to the actual day of celebration.
  • In a sequential manner these 9 colors include:




Announcement of a meeting to set the date

Lagna dekha

Setting the exact date for partaking of new rice

Daka haka


Sapha sutura and lipa-puchha


Kina bika


Nua dhan khuja

Looking for the new crop

Bali paka

Final resolve for Nuakhai by taking Prasad (the offering) to the deity


Eating the new crop as Prasad after offering it to the deity, followed by dancing and singing

Juhar bhet

Respect to elders & gift transfers


  1. PIB | Prime Minister greets people on Nuakhai
  2. The Times of India | Nuakhai The harvesting festival of Odisha

National Medical Commission (NMC)

National Medical Commission achieved prestigious WFME Recognition Status for 10 Years.


  • It is India's premier regulatory body overseeing medical education and practice.
  • It has been constituted by an act of Parliament known as National Medical Commission Act, 2019.
  • Aim of the National Medical Commission
    • Improve access to quality and affordable medical education.
    • Ensure availability of adequate and high quality medical professionals in all parts of the country.
    • Promote equitable and universal healthcare.
    • Objectively assess medical institutions periodically.
    • Have an effective grievance redressal mechanism.

Recent events

  • Status - The National Medical Commission (NMC), India achieves the status of World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Recognition for a tenure of 10 years
  • This is a testament to NMC’s commitment to the highest standards in medical education and accreditation.
  • Recognized Entities - As part of this recognition, all the existing medical colleges and the new medical colleges in India will become WFME accredited.
  • Significance - The recognition will further enhance the quality and standards of medical education in India by aligning them with the global best practices and benchmarks.
  • Eligibility - It enables Indian medical graduates to pursue postgraduate training and practice in other countries that require WFME recognition.
  • With NMC being WFME accredited all the Indian students become eligible to apply for Education Commission on Foreign Medical Education and United States Medical Licensing Examination.

World Federation for Medical Education (WFME)

  • It is a global organization dedicated to enhancing the quality of medical education worldwide.
  • WFME's accreditation program plays a pivotal role in ensuring that medical institutes meet and uphold the highest international standards of education and training.


  1. PIB | National Medical Commission
  2. NMC | Introduction

Sacred ensembles of Hoysalas

The sacred ensembles of the Hoysalas, which includes three temples in Karnataka, has been inscribed on the UNESCO’s World Heritage List.

Hoysala Temples

  • History Hoysala style temple complexes in southern India, dating from the 12th to 13th centuries are dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu.
  • Architecture The shrines are characterized by sculptures, stone carvings, a circumambulatory platform, a large-scale sculptural gallery, a multi-tiered frieze, and sculptures of the Sala legend.

The Chennakeshava temple

  • It is located in Belur (Hassan district), Karnataka.
  • It was constructed by King Vishnuvardhana of the Hoysala dynasty in the 12th century to commemorate his victory over the Cholas.
  • The Hoysalas used soft soapstone for their structures, as they were found suitable for intricate carvings.
  • Enclosed by a Prakara with a Gopurabuilt in the Vijayanagar style, the temple stands on a platform or Jagati.


The Hoysaleswara Temple

  • It is situated on the banks of Dwarasamudra tank in Halebidu (Hassan district), Karnataka.
  • The main Hoysaleswara temple was built in the 12th century during the reign of King Vishnuvardhana and is dedicated to Lord Shiva.
  • The second Kedareshwara Temple displays remarkable Hoysala architecture and stone carvings.
  • The Hoysaleswara Temple poised on a star-shaped base on the lawn is an architectural marvel.
  • This twin-shrine temple is perhaps the largest Shiva temple built by the Hoysalas.

Hoysaleswara Temple

The Keshava Temple

  • It is located in Somanathapura village (Mysore district), Karnataka.
  • It was constructed by a commander of the Hoysala Army, Somanatha.
  • The Keshava temple is built on a raised platform with an outer Pradakshina pathway.
  • The temple has a stellar plan with three shrines and Vimanas.


  1. The Indian Express | Sacred ensembles of Hoysalas
  2. Deccan Herald | The sacred ensembles of the Hoysalas

Breakthrough Prize

The 2023 winners of the Breakthrough Prizes were announced recently.

Breakthrough Prizes

  • The Breakthrough Prize is renowned as the Oscars of Science.
  • About - It recognizes the world’s top scientists working in the fundamental sciences.
  • Created by - Group of Silicon Valley entrepreneurs in 2010.
  • Founders - Sergey Brin, Priscilla Chan and Mark Zuckerberg, Yuri and Julia Milner, and Anne Wojcicki.
  • Prize money - Each prize is $3 million and presented in the fields of Life Sciences, Fundamental Physics and Mathematics.
  • In addition, the New Horizons in Physics and Mathematics Prizes and the Maryam Mirzakhani New Frontiers Prize are awarded to early-career researchers.

2023 Prizes

  • 3 prizes were awarded this year in the life sciences category, 1 for mathematics and 1 for physics, 1 for life sciences.
  • Prize in Mathematics - Awarded to Daniel Spielman of Yale for multiple discoveries in theoretical computer science and mathematics.

Theoretical computer science (TCS) is a subset of general computer science and mathematics that focuses on mathematical aspects of computer science.

  • Prize in Fundamental physics - Shared by Charles Bennett, Gilles Brassard, David Deutsch and Peter Shor for their work in quantum information.

Quantum information is problem solving and data processing using a quantum system as the information carrier, rather than binary ‘1’s and ‘0’s used in conventional computation.

  • Life sciences prize - Clifford Brangwynne and Anthony Hyman for discovering a new mechanism of cellular organization.

Cellular Organization refers to the components of the cell and their arrangement inside it.

  • The other life sciences prizes - Awarded to Demis Hassabis and John Jumper for developing AlphaFold, which predicts the structure of proteins.

AlphaFold is an artificial intelligence program which performs predictions of protein structure.

  • Emmanuel Mignot and Masashi Yanagisawa for discovering the causes of narcolepsy.

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that affects the brain's ability to control sleep-wake cycles.


  1. The Hindu | Breakthrough Prize
  2. Breakthrough Prize | About

Stitched Ship

The Ministry of Culture has joined hands with the Indian Navy and Goa-based Hodi Innovations to reconstruct an ancient stitched ship.

Stitched ships

  • They are ships that sailed the oceans on India’s ancient maritime trade routes around 2,000 years ago.
  • These ships are constructed by stitching wooden planks together rather than using nails.
  • This offers flexibility and durability, making them less susceptible to damage from shoals and sandbars.

The Project

  • The project entails collaboration across several ministries and departments.
  • Funded by – 100% by the Ministry of Culture.
  • The ministries of Shipping and External Affairs will be supporting the project in its execution stage.
  • Approved by – The National Implementation Committee.

National Implementation Committee is an inter-agency committee responsible for the coordination of Project implementation activities at the national level.

  • Significance - Once the ship is ready, the voyage will be sent to Bali in Indonesia, in November 2025.
  • This initiative is in synergy with the Ministry of Culture’s Project Mausam.

Project Mausam aims to reconnect and re-establish communications between countries of the Indian Ocean world, to create an understanding of cultural values and concerns.


  1. The Indian Express | Stitched Ship
  2. PIB | keel laying ceremony of the ancient stitched ship
  3. India Today |  'stitched ship'
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Keeping up with UPSC Current Affairs through IAS Parliament

Preparing for the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examination is a rigorous process that requires not just knowledge of various subjects but also a thorough understanding of current affairs. The UPSC syllabus covers a vast range of topics, and current affairs play a significant role in shaping the exam questions. Aspirants need to stay updated with the latest happenings in India and the world to crack the exam successfully. One of the most reliable sources of current affairs for UPSC is the IAS Parliament.

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