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G.S II - Health

Resurgence of Polio Virus

Why in news?

The Global Polio Eradication Drive prepared a list of 30 countries including the U.S, where either imported wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDVP), or circulating VDPV has been identified.

What is Polio disease?

  • Poliomyelitis, commonly called polio, is a highly infectious viral disease that can leave patients disabled, and in some cases, even prove fatal.
  • The virus enters the nervous system and can cause total paralysis in just a few hours.
  • Symptoms - Initial symptoms of the infection include fever, fatigue, headache, vomiting, stiffness of the neck and pain in the limbs.
  • Treatment - There is no known cure for polio. It can only be prevented by way of vaccination.

According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), one in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis, usually in the legs.

  • Types of Polio virus - Wild poliovirus (WPV) has three known strains – types 1, 2, and 3 – each with a slight difference in structure.
  • Immunity to one type does not guarantee immunity to others.
    • Type 1 WPV - remains in circulation and endemic to Pakistan and Afghanistan.
    • Type 2 WPV - declared eradicated in September 2015.
    • Type 3 WPV - declared eradicated in October 2019.
  • Spread of the disease - The polio virus is most commonly spread through the faecal-oral route.
  • It can also spread through contaminated water or food.
  • The virus multiplies in the host’s intestines.
  • Susceptible age group - Most polio cases are recorded in children under five years of age, but all unvaccinated people can contract the disease.

What are the types of Polio vaccination?

  • There are two types of vaccines – oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV).
  • IPV consists of inactivated (killed) poliovirus strains of all three types.
  • The vaccine is administered through an intramuscular or intradermal injection.
  • It produces antibodies in the blood against all three types of the poliovirus.
  • OPV uses a weakened (also called attenuated) form of poliovirus, which can either be one strain or a combination.
  • OPVs are administered orally, they are more suitable for mass vaccination.

What is VDPV and cVDPV?

  • Vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) – The OPV strains while replicating in the gastrointestinal tract, genetically changes into a form that can paralyze.
  • This may spread in communities that are not fully vaccinated against polio
  • Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) - It occurs when local immunity to poliovirus is low enough to allow prolonged transmission of the original weakened virus in the OPV.

How about the picture in India?


  • The Government of India launched the National Immunisation Day (NID), the Pulse Polio immunisation programme in 1995.
  • It aims to administer polio drops to all children under 5 years.
  • Additionally, Sub-National Immunisation Days are also conducted every year in high-risk areas.
  • WHO removed India from its list of endemic countries with active poliovirus transmission and India is polio free.

India was declared polio free in 2014 by WHO.

What are India’s concerns with global poliovirus resurgence?

  • India shares border with polio-endemic countries Pakistan and Afghanistan and continues to face the threat of importation of the wild polio virus (WPV) and/or vaccine-derived polio viruses (VDPV).
  • In 2021, India had announced that people returning to the country from Afghanistan would be vaccinated against polio as a preventive measure.
  • World Health Organisation (WHO) said that India’s robust surveillance system, along with routine immunisation and NIDs, meets the recommended global standards.
  • There is no evidence of VDPVs circulating in the community.



  1. https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/health/explained-new-york-declares-polio-emergency-should-india-be-worried/article65941678.ece
  2. https://www.who.int/india/news/detail/17-06-2022-investigation-of-the-vaccine-derived-polio-virus--found-in-sewage-sample-in-kolkata#:~:text=India%2C%20along%20with%2010%20other,VDPVs%20circulating%20in%20the%20community.

G.S II - Polity

Supreme Court’s Abortion Ruling

Why in news?

The Supreme Court in a significant judgment ruled that all women, irrespective of their marital status, are entitled to safe and legal abortion.

What is the background of the case?

  • A plea was made in the Delhi High Court by a 25-year-old unmarried who wished to terminate her pregnancy as her partner had refused to marry her at the last stage.
  • The woman moved to the Supreme Court seeking an abortion after the Delhi High Court declined her plea.
  • She argued that the continuation of the pregnancy would involve a risk of grave and immense injury to her mental health.
  • However, the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Rules, 2003, allowed such change in circumstances only for marital relationships.
  • The Supreme Court, in an interim order, had allowed the petitioner to terminate her pregnancy.

Unsafe abortions continue to be the third leading cause of maternal mortality. 60% of abortions carried out in India are unsafe.

What does the abortion law say?

  • The Medical Termination of Pregnancy (Amendment) Act, 2021 allows termination of pregnancy by a medical practitioner in two stages.
  • For pregnancies up to 20 weeks- Termination is allowed under the opinion of one registered medical practitioner.
  • The MTP can be accessed
    • If the continuation of pregnancy would involve a risk to the life of the pregnant woman or result in grave injury to her physical or mental health.
    • If the pregnancy is as a result of rape or failure of contraceptive used by the pregnant woman or her partner to limit the number of children or to prevent pregnancy.
    • If there is a substantial risk that if the child was born, it would suffer from serious physical or mental abnormality.
  • For pregnancies between 20-24 weeks- Certain criteria such as who can avail termination, requirement of opinion of two registered medical practitioners etc. had been added.
  • As per Section 3B of the Rules, this extended gestational limit is applicable to
    • Survivor of sexual assault or rape
    • Minors
    • Change of marital status during the ongoing pregnancy
    • Women with physical disabilities
    • Mentally ill women
    • The foetal malformation
    • Pregnancy in humanitarian settings or disaster

To know more about The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, click here

What is the court’s interpretation?

  • Abortion regardless of marital status- The Court has ruled that there is no rationale for excluding single or unmarried women from the women who could seek abortion care between 20 weeks to 24 weeks.
  • Change in marital status- It permitted the change in marital status as one of the reasons for which abortion during the extended upper limit of 24 weeks.
  • The Court has ruled that even abandonment by the partner could constitute a change in circumstances.
  • Rights of reproductive autonomy- The Court said that the rights of reproductive autonomy give the same rights to married as well as unmarried women.
  • Decision- The Court has laid down that an unwanted pregnancy affects a woman’s physical and mental health, rendering it important that she alone should decide on whether to undergo an abortion.
  • Marital rape- The court ruled that under the Act, the definition of rape must include marital rape.
  • The significant decision came months after the US Supreme Court overturned the historic 1973 Roe v Wade decision that made abortion a constitutional right in the country.

What is the effect of the judgment?

  • Rights- The judgement is anchored on the clauses of equality, right to dignity, privacy and bodily autonomy of women.
  • Discourage illegal abortions- Legalisation of abortions will discourage the illegal practice of abortions done through untrained, unauthorised paramedics which are hazardous for the child bearer.
  • Social and gender justice- Access to abortion is critically tied to preserving and upholding the human rights of pregnant women, girls, and others, and hence to attaining social and gender justice.
  • On marital rape- The inclusion of marital rape under the Act sends a powerful message for recognising marital rape as an offence under Section 375 of the IPC.
  • Case based decision- While the ruling recognises the right of unmarried women, it leaves the enforcement of the right to be decided on a case-to-case basis.
  • This means the decision will be in the hands of the registered medical practitioners and if unsatisfied, the woman can approach the court.

Exception 2 to Section 375 of the IPC removes marital rape from the ambit of rape.



  1. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/lead/no-discrimination-the-hindu-editorial-on-supreme-courts-abortion-ruling/article65955828.ece
  2. https://indianexpress.com/article/lifestyle/health/supreme-court-ruling-abortion-rights-all-women-married-unmarried-health-importance-experts-quotes-8179977/
  3. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/supreme-court-women-abortion-ruling-8181347/


G.S II - International Issues

The Anti-Hijab Protests in Iran

Why in news?

The death of a young Iranian-Kurdish woman while in the custody of the morality police has triggered nationwide protests in the Islamic Republic, bringing the clerical regime under public pressure.

What is the issue?

  • Mahsa Amini had been detained by morality police for allegedly wearing the hijab (headscarf) in an improper way.
  • The authorities attributed her death three days later to a heart attack while being trained on hijab rules.
  • But her parents and activists say she was beaten to death.
  • The incident triggered widespread anger in a country where state suppression of women’s rights and resistance has always been a big political issue.
  • Several cities, including Tehran and Mashhad saw demonstrators chanting slogans against the clerical establishment and women publicly burning hijabs.

How about the regime in Iran?

  • The Shia clergy have built a system of clerical dictatorship with limited democratic practices.
  • The state-sponsored conservatism and social repression produces constant tensions between the rulers and the ruled.
  • President Ebrahim Raisi’s regime has made it clear that it would use force to quell the protests, with the Revolutionary Guard Corps terming the protesters “traitors”.

What are Iran's hijab laws?

  • It was made compulsory for women to wear the hijab in Iran, following the 1979 Islamic Revolution.
  • Morality police are tasked with ensuring women conform to the authorities' interpretation of proper clothing.
  • In 2014, Iranian women began sharing photos and videos of themselves publicly flouting the hijab laws as part of an online protest campaign called "My Stealthy Freedom".
  • It has since inspired other movements, including "White Wednesdays" and "Girls of Revolution Street".

What about hijab laws in other Islamic nations?

  • Afghanistan- Since the Taliban’s takeover, women in Afghanistan are required to wear a burqa and remain under veil in public.
  • Saudi Arabia- Women in Saudi Arabia are supposed to wear abayas - a loose-fitting dress that is worn alongside a hijab or a burqa.
  • Indonesia & Pakistan- Despite being Muslim majority countries, there is no law that mandates wearing hijab.

How is the issue seen with respect to Karnataka hijab protests?

  • Differences- In India, women who want to wear their hijabs are fighting against a system that is forcing them to take the hijabs off.
  • In Iran, women are battling against a regime that is forcing them to wear the hijab.
  • The protest in Karnataka is against the legalisation of anti-Muslim prejudice and the patriarchal attitudes.
  • The protest in Iran is against a patriarchal setup and against how religion is used as a pretext to enforce injustices.
  • It is ironic to compare both since Iran is an Islamic republic and India a secular one with different sociopolitical realities.
  • Similarity- The similarity between the agitations is that they are both fighting against the control over the autonomy.
  • Both Iran's anti-hijab & India's pro-hijab protest are said to be in regards with the freedom of choice.



  1. https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/ageing-regime-the-hindu-editorial-on-irans-hijab-protests/article65927060.ece
  2. https://www.thequint.com/voices/opinion/iran-anti-hijab-protests-karnataka-hijab-protests-about-choice-womens-rights#read-more
  3. https://www.timesnownews.com/india/explained-anti-hijab-protests-in-iran-and-hijab-laws-in-islamic-nations-article-94380876
  4. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-62967381


Quick facts

Morality Police

  • The morality police known formally as "Gasht-e Ershad" (Guidance Patrols) in Iran enforce a dress code in the country that requires women wear to wear hijabs in public.
  • The morality police also bans tight trousers, ripped jeans, brightly coloured outfits and clothes exposing knees.
  • Officers have the power to Stop women and assess whether
    • They are showing too much hair
    • Their trousers and overcoats are too short or close-fitting
    • They are wearing too much make-up
  • Punishments for violating the rules include a fine, prison or flogging (beaten severely with a whip or a stick).

G.S III - Economy

RBI Monetary Policy Highlights

Why in news?

The Monetary Policy Committee has decided to hike the repo rate by another 50 basis points to 5.9% from a rate of 4.4% earlier this May.

What is monetary policy?

  • Monetary policy is a plan under which the central bank takes necessary measures to ensure the economic growth and stability of the country.
  • These measures help the RBI to influence the demand and supply of money to stabilise inflation for the time being.
  • Tools of Monetary Policy- RBI uses several economic tools to control the economic activities, like
    • Changes in repo rates
    • Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR)
    • Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)
    • Engaging in open market operations of selling or buying government securities
  • Types of monetary policy
    • Contractionary policy- It increases interest rates and limits the money supply to slow growth and decrease inflation.
    • Expansionary policy- It happens during times of slowdown or a recession
    • It lowers the interest rates, where saving becomes less attractive and consumer spending and borrowing increase.

What are the goals of the monetary policy?

  • Inflation- Contractionary monetary policy is used to target a high level of inflation and reduce money circulating in the economy.
  • Unemployment- Higher money supply and attractive interest rates stimulate business activities and expands the job market.
  • Exchange Rates- With an increase in the money supply, the domestic currency becomes cheaper than its foreign exchange.

What are the key highlights of RBI Monetary Policy?

  • Status of Indian economy- The world is in midst of third major shock arising from aggressive rate hikes in advanced economies apart from the Covid impact and the Ukraine war.
  • Repo rate- RBI hikes benchmark lending rate by 50 basis points to 5.90%.
  • Others- Accordingly, the standing deposit facility (SDF) now stands at 5.65% and marginal standing facility (MSF) and bank rate at 6.15%.
  • Nature of policy- RBI to remain focused on withdrawal of accommodative monetary policy.
  • Inflation- Inflation expected to remain elevated at around 6% in second half of FY23.
  • Inflation projection for FY23 retained at 6.7% for FY23.
  • Currency- The rupee orderly depreciated by 7.4% against US dollar this year.
  • Forex Reserve- Forex Reserve now stands at 537.5 billion dollars.
  • Debt- External debt to GDP is lowest amongst growing economies.
  • Economic growth- RBI cuts its economic growth projection for FY23 to 7% from earlier estimate of 7.2%.
  • India’s import growth is decelerating compared to export growth.

What can be inferred from the report?

  • Rate hike- The move to hike the repo rate is justified under the extremely stressed global and domestic circumstances.
  • The unpredictable rupee was certainly an important factor.
  • Decline in forex reserves- 67% of the decline in the foreign exchange reserves since April was due to valuation changes arising from strengthening US dollar and higher American bond yields.
  • Growth forecast- Aggressive tightening of monetary policies globally has led to the cut in growth forecast to 7%.
  • Economic activity- The Indian economy continues to be resilient and the economic activity in India remains stable.
  • Strengthening the banking sector- The RBI has taken a few regulatory and developmental measures that will strengthen the balance sheets of the banking sector.
  • Similar to the NBFCs, banks will now be subjected to a strong way of “expected loss based approach” for their loan loss provisioning.
  • Securitization of stressed assets- The RBI is considering the introduction of a framework for the securitisation of stressed assets similar to that of standard assets.
  • This will widen the investor base for direct purchases of stressed loans from banks and could lead to better price discovery for banks.



  1. https://www.ndtv.com/business/rbi-monetary-policy-live-updates-rbi-certain-to-raise-rates-today-3390575
  2. https://www.moneycontrol.com/news/opinion/rbi-presents-an-optimal-monetary-policy-9257201.html
  3. https://www.indiainfoline.com/article/news-top-story/key-highlights-of-the-rbi-monetary-policy-122093000403_1.html
  4. https://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/monetarypolicy.asp#:~:text=Monetary%20policy%20is%20a%20set%20of%20actions%20to%20control%20a,as%20either%20expansionary%20or%20contractionary.


Quick facts

  • Repo rate- Repo rate is the interest charged by the RBI when commercial banks borrow from them by selling their securities to the central bank.
  • Reverse repo rate- It is a rate at which RBI borrows money from the commercial banks of the country.
  • Inflation- Inflation is the economic situation when prices are rising over time and money loses value.
  • Currency depreciation- Currency depreciation is a fall in the value of a currency in terms of its exchange rate versus other currencies.
  • Cash Reserve Ratio- It is a percentage of the banks' deposits maintained in cash form with the RBI.
  • Statutory Liquidity Ratio- It is an obligatory reserve of commercial banks' net demand and time liabilities, maintained as approved securities by the commercial banks themselves.

G.S III - Defense

India’s Second Chief of Defence Staff

Chief of Defence Staff, CDS, Department of Military Affairs, Ministry of Defence.

India’s second Chief of Defence Staff

Why in news?

The Government has appointed retd. Lt. Gen. Anil Chauhan as the 2nd Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) of the country.

What is the role of Chief of defence Staff (CDS)?

  • CDS is in the rank of a four-star General with salary and perquisites equivalent to a Service Chief.
  • The CDS is the Principal Military Adviser to the Defence Minister on all tri-Services matters.
  • He is also the Permanent Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (CoSC).
  • In addition, the CDS functions as Secretary to the fifth department in the Ministry of Defence (MoD), the Department of Military Affairs (DMA).
  • The government has  made it explicitly clear that the CDS will not exercise any military command, including over the three service chiefs.

How is the CDS appointed?

  • The Government in 2019, created the post of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and then Army Chief Gen. Bipin Rawat was appointed to the post.
  • The country’s first CDS General Bipin Rawat was killed in a chopper crash and the post fell vacant.
  • Lt. Gen. Anil Chauhan (Retired) is appointed as the next Chief of Defence Staff (CDS).
  • Changes in appointment - The Government amended Service Rules of the Army, Navy and Air Force for the appointment of CDS.
  • The change allows retired Service Chiefs and three star rank officers eligible for consideration to the country’s top military post.
  • It imposed an age limit that the retired officer should not have attained 62 years on the date of appointment.
  • While the tenure of Service Chiefs is 62 years of age or three years whichever is earlier, the age limit for the CDS is 65 years of age with no fixed tenure defined.

What are the challenges before the new CDS?

  • Theaterisation - The first CDS was pushing forward for reorganisation of the armed forces into integrated theatre commands to bring in synergy and efficiency.
  • Reorganisation - To bring about jointness in operations, logistics, transport, training, support services, communications, repairs and maintenance of the three Services.
  • To build consensus in this jointness and to ensure that this scheme does not alter the efficiency of the armed forces.
  • Indigenisation of weapons - The war in Ukraine has added urgency on the need to indigenise critical military technologies and systems and reduce dependence on imports.
  • This push demands a paradigm shift in defence innovation and manufacturing ecosystem and users should be afforded lateral entry into the innovation and manufacturing space.
  • Operational capability - The need to build operational capability at a pace that will ensure that the military power asymmetry
  • National Security Strategy (NSS) - Policies and doctrines are easier to evolve under the cover of clearly articulated national and military strategies.
  • The CDS has to decide on the National Security Strategy (NSS) which has divide opinions among the Services.



  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/lt-general-anil-chauhan-appointed-as-new-cds/article65946805.ece
  2. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/editorials/lt-gen-chauhan-will-need-to-build-on-rawat-plan-cds-mandate-8181315/
  3. https://indianexpress.com/article/opinion/columns/new-cds-must-build-a-bridge-between-a-government-in-a-hurry-and-an-organisation-resistant-to-change-8181339/

Prelim Bits

Prelim Bits 01-10-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

Global Innovation Index 2022

The 15th edition of the Global Innovation Index 2022 was released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

  • The Global Innovation Index (GII) was published by WIPO, in partnership with the Portulans Institute.
  • It reveals the most innovative economies in the world.
  • It ranks the innovation performance of 132 economies while highlighting innovation strengths and weaknesses.
  • It ranks the countries based on their innovation capabilities, including roughly 80 indicators, grouped into innovation inputs and innovation outputs.
    1. Innovation inputs capture the efforts made by the country to boost innovation.
    2. Innovation outputs measure the results of these efforts in terms of scientific publications, patents, trademarks, production, exports and other outputs.
  • The 2022 edition of the GII tracks the global innovation trends against the background of an ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, slowing productivity growth and other evolving challenges.
  • Findings - As per GII 2022, Switzerland is the most innovative economy in the world in 2022 - for the 12th year in a row - followed by the US, Sweden, the UK and the Netherlands.
  • China is nearing the top 10, and has been ranked at 11.
  • India has climbed 6 spots and has been ranked 40th in the GII 2022 (46th rank in GII 2021).
  • India is the innovation leader in the lower middle-income group. It continues to lead the world in ICT services exports.
  • Similar Links - India Innovation Index Report 2020


  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1863536
  2. https://www.wipo.int/global_innovation_index/en/2022/
  3. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/indicators/india-breaks-into-top-40-innovative-nations-ranking/articleshow/94540108.cms
  4. https://www.livemint.com/news/india/global-innovation-index-ranking-2022-india-enters-top-40-for-first-time-11664461869215.html

Hurricane Storm Surge

  • Storm surge is an abnormal rise of water generated by a storm, over and above the predicted astronomical tides.
  • As a hurricane reaches the coast, it pushes a huge volume of ocean water ashore. This is called storm surge.
  • This surge appears as a gradual rise in the water level as the storm approaches.
  • Water level heights during a hurricane can reach 20 feet or more above normal sea level.
  • With powerful waves on top of it, a hurricane’s storm surge can cause catastrophic damage.

Storm surge should not be confused with storm tide, which is defined as the water level rise due to the combination of storm surge and the astronomical tide.

  • Factors determining the height of storm surge - Storm surge begins over the open ocean.
  • The strong winds of a hurricane push the ocean waters around and cause water to pile up under the storm.
  • The low air pressure of the storm also plays a small role in lifting the water level.
  • The height and extent of this pile of water depend on the strength and size of the hurricane.
  • As this pile of water moves toward the coast, other factors can change its height and extent.
  • The depth of the sea floor is a factor. If a coastal area has a sea floor that gently slopes away from the coastline, it’s more likely to see a higher storm surge than an area with a steeper drop-off.
  • The shape of the coastline can also shape the surge. When storm surge enters a bay or river, the geography of the land can act as a funnel, sending the water even higher.
  • Ocean tides can also strengthen or weaken the impact of storm surge.
  • Impacts - At high tide, the water is already at an elevated height. If landfall happens at high tide, the storm surge will cause even higher water levels and bring more water further inland.
  • Sea level rise is another growing concern that influences storm surge.
  • When a hurricane arrives, the higher ocean means storm surge can bring water further inland, to a more dangerous and widespread effect.


  1. https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/what-is-hurricane-storm-surge-and-why-can-it-be-so-catastrophic/article65949467.ece
  2. https://www.nhc.noaa.gov/surge/
  3. https://graphics.reuters.com/STORM-IAN/gkvlgrxldpb/

National Informatics Centre

The Government of India has issued Request for Proposal (RfP) for NIC’s organizational restructuring.

The proposal is to develop restructuring plan and implement roadmap to fulfil its vision to make India a $1 trillion digital economy by 2024-25.

  • The National Informatics Centre (NIC) was established in 1976 and is located in New Delhi.
  • It comes under the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY).
  • Its main objective is to provide technology-driven solutions to the Central and State Governments.
  • It has developed digital governance platforms including MyGov, PM-Kisan, National Power Portal, and e-Shram.
  • It offers free services to state government entities and funded by the Central budget.
  • Its main work is to shift the operating expenditure (OpEx) model from current capital expenditure (CapEx).
  • It also maintains National Data Centres in different states and 37 small Data Centres across the country.


  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/centre-looks-to-revamp-national-informatics-centre-its-tech-arm/article6595491ece
  2. https://www.business-standard.com/article/economy-policy/meity-to-revamp-46-yr-old-national-informatics-centre-make-future-ready-122093001162_1.html

Black Cocaine

In mid-1980 a secret black cocaine laboratory was built by a dictator’s army which could not be detected by law enforcement agencies.

  • It is a rare drug, which is a mixture of regular cocaine and other chemicals. This turns it in to turn black in colour.
  • It is used by drug peddlers coming to India from South American countries.
  • Mixture of cocaine hydrochloride with pigments can make drug sniffing dogs undetectable.
  • It neutralises the smell of cocaine so that it can pass through checkpoints easily.
  • Pure cocaine base can be recovered from the mixture by extraction of methylene chloride or acetone.
  • Mumbai is one of the landing points from where it is distributed especially to other metro cities and Goa.


  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/what-is-black-cocaine-ncb-mumbai-8181863/
  2. https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/new-updates/black-cocaine-all-about-this-drug-seized-in-mumbai/articleshow/94564038.cms

Enceladus Ocean

Recently. scientists discovered evidence for life in one of the moons of Saturn.

  • Enceladus is one of the moons of Saturn.
  • It is discovered that beneath its icy surface are oceans.
  • It is rich in dissolved phosphorus, an essential ingredient for life.
  • The space craft Cassini, which orbited Saturn for nearly 13 years, discovered Enceladus's subsurface liquid water.
  • From the cracks of moon's icy surface, plumes of ice grains and water vapour erupted into space.
  • The plume contains almost all the basic requirements of life.

Phosphorus is used for the creation of DNA and RNA, energy-carrying molecules, cell membranes, bones and teeth in people and animals, and even the sea’s microbiome of plankton.

  • Phosphorus in the form of phosphates is also vital for all life on Earth.
  • But, phosphorus is yet to be identified as its availability in the ocean beneath the moon's icy crust.
  • By Cassini, scientists predicted that phosphate minerals would be unusually soluble there.
  • Related Links - Saturn Moon


  1. https://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/science/where-is-the-enceladus-ocean/article65945164.ece

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  • It Helps to prepare for the civil services exam and Attend Self-Assessment Mock Tests.
  • Apart from General Studies, Current Affairs helps to prepare for Essays as well.
  • learning the Tricks of answering writing and Reading the Current Affairs which may differ from others.
  • Encountering the surprise element that the UPSC Current Affairs throw every year. Get prepared for the most current affairs and answer it in UPSC Examination.
  • Helps to Complete the UPSC Exams in a Particular Time.

This Call Out of Current Affairs has Five Parts:

Features: The Civil Service Examination has become More Effective, especially in 2010 after Changing the Syllabus. Our Institution Selects the 4 to 5 Topics in Major UPSC Current Affairs section to Analyse and Understand the core reason for the issue which may help aspirants to write answers in the mains Examination.

Mains Current Affairs QA: This Section Helps aspirants to Collect Descriptive Questions and Answers based on the Latest developments and Current News. We provide additional information about the Current Affairs based on our Aspirant Needs.

Prelims Bits QA: This Section Contains the Objective questions that will help to test the Knowledge level of the Aspirants. We should update the answer file the next day with a detailed Explanation. This type of process will improve the Awareness of UPSC's Current Affairs and their Importance.

Allied Current Affairs QA: This part Contains the UPSC General Studies QA and other Mock Test Regarding the Allied Current Affairs topics like Environment Current Affairs, Polity Current Affairs UPSC, Geography Current Affairs on UPSC, Economy Current Affairs on UPSC and Many Magazine and Latest News Related Questions and Answers.

Instructions to Aspirants: We Support our Candidates to Follow Study and Revise the UPSC Current Affairs Regularly through our IAS Parliament Website. In that, we can help you to Cover the Entire Syllabus which is helpful to aspirants to reach their Successful Goals in UPSC Examinations.