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Crime in India 2022

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December 07, 2023

Why in news?

As per the recent National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) report on the crime situation in India, there was an increase in various types of crimes in 2022 compared to 2021.

What are the key highlights of the report?

  • Data source- The report is a compilation of data on reported crime from across the country, obtained from the police forces of 36 States and Union Territories.
  • Data validation- The information is entered by State/UT police at the level of the local police station, and is validated at the levels of the district and State, and finally, by the NCRB.
  • Registration of cases-The report shows a decline of 4.5% in the registration of cases over the second pandemic year, 2021.
  • Crime rate- Crimes registered per lakh population, has declined from 445.9 in 2021 to 422.2 in 2022.
  • Safest city - Kolkata for the 3rd consecutive year has been recognised as the safest city in India, it recorded the least number of cognisable offences per lakh population among other major cities in India.
  • Increase in crime- Highest surge in crimes is seen in crimes against foreigners with 28% increase compared with 2021.

Category

States affected/ Major reason behind the crime

Crimes against women

  • Cruelty by spouses or relatives, kidnapping and abduction, assault "with intent to outrage modesty", and rape.
  • Delhi registered highest rate of crime against women in the country.

Offences against the state

Jammu and Kashmir, Chhattisgarh, Manipur, Assam, and Nagaland

Cybercrimes

  • Fraud, extortion and sexual exploitation
  • Maharashtra, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana and Kerala

Economic offences

FCF (Forgery, cheating and fraud), criminal breach of trust and counterfeiting

Murder

Disputes, personal vendetta or enmity and gain.

Cognizable crimes

  • Major decline is seen in the cases registered under disobedience or order duly promulgated by public servant’ (Section 188 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC)).
  • Highest charge sheeting rate under IPC crimes are Kerala, Puducherry and West Bengal.

Crime against foreigners

Theft and rape, with most of the victims are from Asian continent followed by African countries.

Suicides

  • Family problems, marriage related problems and illness.
  • Overall male tend to be suicide victims than female.

 What are the limitations of the report?

  • Data collection- The report only shows registered crime, not actual crime. For example, more reports of crimes against women may mean more awareness, not more violence.
  • Principle Offence Rule- The report follows a rule that counts only the most severe crime in a single FIR.
  • This can lead to undercounting of some crimes, such as rape, if they are accompanied by murder.
  • Data inaccuracy- The data is collected from local police, which may not reflect the true causes or extent of crimes.
  • Lack of wider focus-The NCRB itself notes that the socio-economic causative factors or reasons of crimes are not being captured by the Bureau.
  • Lack of trust- Some groups may not report crimes due to fear or lack of trust in the police.
  • Manpower shortage- Some of the police stations may have staff shortages or vacancies that affect data quality.

What lies ahead?

  • The surge in cybercrimes indicates that the online world is not safe, it requires safe and secure architecture and proper awareness among the people.
  • There is a need to
    • Strengthen support services for victims, providing safe shelter homes, and making legal aid more accessible.
    • Optimise the full potential of technology to create safer environments, such as panic buttons in public spaces and enhanced surveillance systems.
  • A holistic approach must be adopted with better community involvement, education, support services, and capacity building to tackle the surge in crimes in India.

Quick facts

National Crime Record Bureau

  • Established- 1986
  • Headquarters- New Delhi
  • Nodal agency- Ministry of Home Affairs
  • Motto- Empowering Indian Police with Information Technology
  • Mandate- To compile and keep records of data on crime.
  • National warehouse- For the fingerprint records of Indian and foreign criminals, and assists in locating interstate criminals through fingerprint search.
  • National Cybercrime Reporting Portal- NCRB has been appointed as Central Nodal agency to manage technical and operational functions of the online cyber-crime reporting portal and associated work of Cyber Crime Prevention against Women & Children (CCPWC) scheme.
  • Crime Multi-Agency Centre (Cri-MAC)- NCRB has recently launched this application for flashing alerts or crime bulletins on important matters of crime and for inter-unit communication among disjointed police units across the country.
  • Publications-
    • Crime in India
    • Accidental Deaths and Suicides in India (ADSI)
    • Prison Statistics India
    • Report on Missing Women and Children
    • Finger Prints in India

 

References

  1. The Hindu- Increase in crimes in India
  2. Indian Express- Increase in cybercrime
  3. NCRB- Crime in India 2022 report
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