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Prelim Bits 06-06-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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June 06, 2023

Nyaya Vikas Portal

Nyaya Vikas portal was created for monitoring the implementation of Centrally Sponsored Scheme for Judicial Infrastructure.

Centrally Sponsored Schemes for Judicial Infrastructure

  • The primary responsibility of development of infrastructure facilities for judiciary rests with the State Governments.
  • To augment the resources of the State Governments, the Union Government has been implementing a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
  • Aim - It aims for the development of Infrastructure Facilities for Judiciary by providing financial assistance to State Governments / UTs in the prescribed fund sharing pattern between Centre and States.
  • It covers the construction of court buildings and residential accommodations for Judicial Officers of District and Subordinate Judiciary.
  • Outlay - Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS)
  • Ministry - Ministry of Law and Justice
  • Year – The scheme being implemented since 1993-94.
  • Fund Sharing
    • States - 60:40 for States other than North Eastern and Himalayan States.
    • For North Eastern and Himalayan States - 90:10
    • For Union Territories (U.T) - 100% centrally funded
  • For monitoring the status of the projects 3 broad monitoring mechanisms have been provided.
    1. High Court Level Monitoring Committee at State level
    2. Central Level Monitoring Committee in the Department of Justice, required to meet every 6 months
    3. Nyaya Vikas Online monitoring system.
  • Nyaya Vikas Portal – It is a digital platform to monitor the Centrally Sponsored Scheme for Development of Infrastructure for Judiciary.

References

PIB | Nyaya Vikas Portal

 

Trimbakeshwar Temple

Shri Trimbakeshwar temple in Maharastra witnessed communal tensions for the past 6 months.

  • Location - Shri Trimbakeshwar Temple is located in Nashik City, Maharastra.
  • It is located near the mountain named Brahamagiri from which the river Godavari flows.
  • There are 3 hills surrounding this temple – Brahmagiri, Nilagiri and Kalagiri.
  • History - It was constructed by 3rd Peshwa Balaji Bajirao also known as Nana Saheb, in the mid-18th century (1740-1760).
  • Special features - The entire temple is built with black stone.
  • Trimbakeshwar Jyotirlinga is only one of the 12 jyotirlingas in India.
  • Trimbakeshwara - It not only honor Lord Shiva but the other two gods in the Holy Trinity - Lord Vishnu and Lord Brahma as well.
  • They all exist within the hollow space within the Shivalinga and hence the name Trimbakeshwara (3 Lords).
  • They are covered by a jewelled crown that is believed to date to the era of the Pandavas.
  • Jyotirlinga means column or pillar of light.
  • The stambha symbol represents that there is no beginning or end.

A stambha is a pillar or a column employed in Indian architecture, it sometimes bears inscriptions and religious emblems.

  • The temple has a well called Amritavarshini, believed to be the source of the Godavari.
  • The temple has a well called Amritavarshini, believed to be the source of the Godavari.
  • Trimbakeshwar Simhastha - The famous pilgrimage festival, Kumbh Mela, occurs here once every 12 years.

Kumbh Mela

  • It is a hindu religious festival that is celebrated 4 times over the course of 12 years.
  • The site of the observance rotating between 4 pilgrimage places on four sacred rivers.
    1. Haridwar - Ganges River
    2. Ujjain - Shipra River
    3. Nashik - Godavari
    4. Prayag - Ganges, Yamuna, and the mythical Sarasvati.

References

The Hindu | Communal Riots in Trimbakeshwar Temple

 

Electronic interlocking (EI) System in Railways

A change made in the electronic interlocking and point machine led to the recent train accident in Odisha.

Interlocking

  • It is an integral part of railway signalling.
  • It refers to a mechanism that controls the movement of trains to ensure trains move safely through a controlled area.
  • The system is an arrangement of signals and points which operate so that a train can move from one track or junction to another safely, without coming in the way of another train.
  • Under the system, signals and points are inter-connected mechanically or electrically or both.

Electronic interlocking (EI)

  • It is an advanced signalling, computer-based system that uses electronic components to manage the movement of trains and the configuration of tracks.
  • The EI, which is based on software, is designed to prevent 2 trains from running on the same track at the same time.
  • It ensures that a train gets a go-ahead only when the route ahead is clear.
  • The system is an alternative to the conventional Relay Interlocking system.

As of last year, 2,888 stations in India were equipped with an electronic interlocking system — comprising 45.5% of the Indian Railways network.

Components of EI

  • The EI signal system comprises 3 crucial elements:
  • Signal - Based on the status of the track ahead, signals are used to stop, proceed, or exercise caution.
  • Point switch - A train can change its track using a point.
  • These are movable sections of a track which guide the wheels towards either the straight or diverging track.
  • Track circuit - These are electrical circuits on tracks to detect the presence of a vehicle or a train on a section of track.
  • Track circuits help to verify whether a particular route is clear or occupied and if it is safe for a train to proceed.

Working of EI

  • Two information points form the basis of the EI signal system
    1. A signal to pass is given based first on which direction the track is set
    2. On whether the divergent track is free of obstruction.
  • All activities in the signalling system are recorded in a microprocessor-based system called a data logger.
  • It acts like the black box of an aircraft and can store and process signal data to generate reports.

References

The Hindu | Electronic Interlocking System

 

Sunflower Consumption

Black Sea Grain Initiative led to the international vegetable oil prices falling.

  • Ukraine and Russia together accounted for nearly 58% of the world’s production of oilseed in 2021-22.
  • As the war shut off their supplies through the Black Sea ports, prices skyrocketed.
  • However, the situation changed with the Black Sea Grain Initiative agreement between Russia and Ukraine signed on July 22.
  • The deal, brokered by the UN and Turkey, facilitated the safe navigation of vessels carrying grain and foodstuffs.
  • It led to international vegetable oil prices falling below even pre-war levels.

Impact in India

India consumes 23.5-24 million tonnes (mt) of cooking oil annually, out of which 13.5-14 mt is imported and the balance 9.5-10 mt produced from domestically cultivated seed.

  • Sunflower is the 4th largest consumed oil, behind mustard, soyabean and palm.
  • Both sunflower and palm oil are almost wholly imported.
  • This is unlike mustard and soyabean, where the share of domestic output are close to 100% and 30-32% respectively.
  • The other locally produced oils — cottonseed, rice bran, groundnut, and coconut aren’t big enough to influence prices.
  • Sunflower production in India - Sunflower is being traditionally grown in Karnataka, Telangana, and Maharashtra.
  • Roughly 70% of the country’s sunflower oil consumption is in the Southern states with highest from Maharashtra and other states making up the rest.

References

The Indian Express | Sunflower Consumption

 

Dal Lake

The J&K government has attributed the death of thousands of fish in the Dal Lake in Srinagar to thermal stratification.

  • Dal Lake, situated in the northeast of Srinagar in Kashmir valley.
  • It is the 2nd largest lake in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • The lake is probably of fluvial origin, formed from the oxbows of river Jhelum.
  • Due to its beauty and attraction, Dal lake is also known as the "Jewel in crown of Kashmir or Srinagar's Jewel".
  • It is declared as a protected wetland and a commercial fishing point.
  • It has witnessed shore line Mughal gardens, such as Shalimar Bagh and Nishat Bagh built during the reign of Mughal Emperor Jahangir.
  • It is a part of a natural wetland including its floating gardens.
  • The floating gardens, known as Raad in Kashmiri, blossom with lotus flowers.
  • The wetland is divided by causeways into 4 basins; Gagribal, Lokut Dal, Bod Dal and Nagin (although Nagin is also considered as an independent lake).
  • Lokut-dal and Bod-dal each have an island in the centre, known as Rup Lank (or Char Chinari) and Sona Lank respectively.

Thermal Stratification

  • It occurs when the surface layer of water, warmed by the sun, becomes less dense than the water underneath it.
  • Pollution has badly affected the Schizothorax fish harvest and has destroyed the breeding grounds of the native fish.
  • Data on harvest of Schizothorax, a local fish species known as Kashir gaad or Snowtrouts, from the lake between 1989 to 2019, shows a downward trend.
  • The study suggested that the lake’s alkalinity has gone up.
  • The chloride content of the water has drastically increased due to drainage from catchment areas, raw sewage coming from houseboats and nearby settlements and organic runoff from floating gardens.

References

The Hindu | Dal Lake: a polluted wasteland

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