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Prelim Bits 14-06-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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June 14, 2023

Cholederm

Indian Drugs Controller approves first indigenously developed animal-derived tissue, named cholederm

  • Cholederm is a wound healing material derived from the extracellular matrix of de-cellularised gall bladder of pig.
  • It is a Class D Biomedical Device material.
  • Indigenous one - It is the first indigenously developed product to all statutory requirements of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation.
  • Developer - Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), an autonomous institution of the Department of Science and Technology (DST).
  • Advantages - The treatment cost can be reduced making it more affordable to the common man.
  • Cholederm healed different types of skin wounds including burn and diabetic wounds faster than other products with minimal scarring.
  • Moreover, the technology for recovering extracellular matrix from the gallbladder is not available to others and it gives a fair chance for competition in the international market.

The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO)

  • The CDSCO is the national regulatory body for pharmaceuticals and medical devices in India.
  • Ministry - Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India is the National Regulatory Authority (NRA) of India.
  • Headquarters - New Delhi
  • Under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, CDSCO is responsible for approval of drugs, conduct of clinical trials, laying down the standards for drugs, control over the quality of imported drugs in the country.
  • CDSCO along with state regulators, is jointly responsible for grant of licenses of certain specialized categories of critical drugs such as blood and blood products, I. V. fluids, vaccine and sera.
  • The Drug Controller General of India (DCGI), which is an organ of the CDSCO, is responsible for approving and licensing of drugs and medical devices.

References

PIB | Cholederm

The Hindu | Cholederm is authorised by CDSCO 

 

Anjadip & Sanshodhak

Two warships named Anjadip and Sanshodhak launched at Kattupalli in Chennai.

Anjadip

  • It is the 3rd of the 8 ships of the contract that was signed between Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers and Ministry of Defence in 2019.
  • The ship was named after the island of Anjadip located off Karwar Port, Karnataka signifying its strategic maritime importance.
  • The 'Arnala' class of ships would replace the current 'Abhay' class of Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvettes of the Navy.
  • Operations - Anti-submarine operations in coastal waters, low intensity maritime operations, subsurface surveillance among others.

ASW Shallow Water Craft (SWC) Project

  • It is signed to build 8 ASW SWC ships.
  • It is signed between Ministry of Defence and Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers (GRSE), Kolkata, 2019.

Sanshodhak

  • The ship named ‘Sanshodhak’, meaning ‘Researcher’ is the 4th ship of Survey Vessels Large (SVL) Project.
  • It is being built by L&T/ GRSE for Indian Navy.
  • It is indigenously developed under the Atmanirbar Bharat programme.
  • SVL ships will replace the existing Sandhayak Class survey ships, with new generation hydrographic equipment, to collect oceanographic data.
  • Functions - Coastal and deep-water hydrographic surveys of Ports and navigational channels.
  • Collect oceanographic and geophysical data for defence.
  • HADR, and can serve as Hospital ship during emergencies.

Survey Vessels (Large) (SVL) Project

  • It is signed to build 4 SVL ships.
  • It is signed between Ministry of Defence and Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers (GRSE), 2018.

References

The Hindu | Two warships launched at kattupalli

PIB | Launch of Anjadip

PIB | Launch of Sanshodhak

 

Gender Social Norms Index (GSNI), 2023

A recently released UNDP report says Prejudices against women didn’t reduce in last decade, 90% people still hold gender bias.

  • Index - It is released by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
  • It quantifies biases against women, capturing people’s attitudes on women’s roles along four key dimensions— political, educational, economic and physical integrity.
  • Findings - The index, covering 85% of the global population, reveals that close to 9 out of 10 men and women hold fundamental biases against women.
  • Gender social norms have persisted for centuries and are pronounced in countries with lower and higher Human Development Index (HDI).
  • ​​​​​​​The latest GSNI report showed little progress, despite global and local campaigns for women’s rights in recent years such as Me Too, Ni Una Menos, Time’s Up and Un Violador en Tu Camino.
  • Biased gender social norms can contribute to lack of equality in political participation.
  • Countries with greater bias in gender social norms also show a lower presence of women in parliament.
  • On average, the share of heads of state or government who are women has remained around 10 % worldwide since 1995, and women hold just over a quarter of parliament seats globally.
  • Women are underrepresented in leadership in conflict-affected countries, mainly at the negotiation tables in the recent conflicts in Ukraine (0%), Yemen (4%) and Afghanistan (10%).
  • Globally, about seven of 10 peace processes did not include any women mediators or women signatories.
  • Even in the 59 countries where adult women are more educated than men, the average income gap is 39%.
  • Countries with no bias - Germany, Uruguay, New Zealand, Singapore and Japan.
  • 25 % of people believe it is justified for a man to beat his wife.

Reference

Down to Earth | UNDP’s 2023 Gender Social Norms Index (GSNI)

 

Fame -II Subsidy Cut

The government has reduced the subsidy provided under FAME-II scheme applicable on electric two-wheelers registered on or after June 1, 2023.

FAME INDIA Scheme

  • The Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles (FAME) scheme was launched in 2015.
  • Aim - It is to support hybrid/electric vehicles market development and Manufacturing eco-system.
  • Ministry – Ministry of Heavy Industries.
  • It is a part of National Electric Mobility Mission Plan.
  • The incentive is linked to battery capacity of e-vehicles with a cap 20% of the cost of vehicle.

FAME II

  • The scheme was commenced on April 2019 for a period of 3 years.
  • Incentive cap increased from 20% to 40% of the capital cost of the e-2W.
  • Only advanced battery and registered vehicles will be incentivized under the scheme.
  • In 2022, it was further extended for a period of 2 years up to March 31, 2024.

Recent Notification

  • The government has reduced the subsidy provided under FAME-II scheme applicable on electric two-wheelers registered on or after June 1, 2023.
  • For electric two-wheelers, the demand incentive will be Rs 10,000 per kWh.
  • The cap on incentives for electric two-wheelers will be 15% of the ex-factory price of vehicles from 40% at present.

References

The Hindu Businessline | FAME-II subsidy cut l, disrupt EV sector growth

Economic Times | FAME II subsidy cut

The Hindu Businessline | EV subsidy withdrawal

 

Decline in number of Ordinances

There has been a steady decrease in the number of ordinances promulgated by the Centre since 2019.

Ordinance

  • An ordinance is a law promulgated by the President of India on the recommendation of the Union Cabinet, which will have the same effect as an Act of Parliament.
  • This is done only when the Parliament is not in session.
  • An ordinance is typically not preferable since it bypasses democratic processes laid down by the Constitution.
  • Article 123 - Power of president to promulgate ordinances during recess of Parliament.
  • He can also withdraw an ordinance at any time.
  • Article 213 - Power of governor to promulgate ordinances during recess of the state legislature.
  • He can also withdraw an ordinance at any time.
  • Article 239B - Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.
  • Article 13 - The definition of ‘law’ contained in Article 13 expressly includes ordinances.
  • Ratification within 6 weeks or 42 days - Ordinances must be approved by the Parliament within six weeks from its reassembly or the ordinance lapses at the expiry of 6 weeks.
  • According to articles of 123 and 213 if the two Houses start their sessions on different dates, the later date will be considered.
  • Lapse of ordinance - The Ordinance may lapse earlier if the President withdraws it or if both Houses pass resolutions disapproving it.
  • If an Ordinance makes a law that Parliament is not competent to enact under the Constitution, it shall be considered void.
  • Act of Parliament - Ordinances have the same force and effect as an act of Parliament but are in the nature of temporary laws.
  • National emergency - While a proclamation of national emergency is in operation, the President can issue ordinances on the state subjects also, if the Parliament is not in session.
  • Re-promulgation of Ordinance - If an Ordinance lapses, the only option for the government is to reissue or re-promulgate it.
  • Non-justiciable - 38 Amendment Act 1975 made the promulgation of ordinances by the president, governors and administrators of union territories non-justiciable.

Reference

The Hindu Businessline | Govt’s reliance on ordinances on a decline since 2019

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