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Prelim Bits 31-10-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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October 31, 2022

Monetary Policy Committee’s Inflation report

For the first time since the implementation of the monetary policy framework in 2016, the Reserve Bank will submit an inflation report to the government.

  • Under the Reserve Bank of India Act of 1934 (amendment 2016), RBI is entrusted with the responsibility of conducting monetary policy in India.
  • Under RBI Act, the central government, in consultation with the RBI, determines the inflation target in terms of Consumer Price Index (CPI), once in every five years.
  • The current inflation target is to keep retail inflation at 4% with a tolerance of 2% on either side, for a period of 5 years (April 1, 2021 to March 31, 2026.)
  • For three consecutive quarters beginning January 2022, RBI has failed to keep the retail inflation rate below 6%.
  • Failure to Maintain Inflation Target: Section 45ZN of the Act deals with failure to maintain the inflation target.
  • The Central Government has notified the following as the factors that constitute failure to achieve the inflation target.
    1. The average inflation is more than the upper tolerance level of the inflation target for any three consecutive quarters; or
    2. The average inflation is less than the lower tolerance level for any three consecutive quarters.
  •  Where the Bank fails to meet the inflation target, it shall submit a report to the Central Government stating.
    1. The reasons for failure to achieve the inflation target.
    2. Remedial actions proposed to be taken by the Bank and
    3. An estimate of the time-period within which the inflation target shall be achieved pursuant to timely implementation of proposed remedial actions.

Monetary Policy Committee

  • The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) determines the policy repo rate required to achieve the inflation target.
  • Section 45ZB of the amended RBI Act, 1934 provides for an monetary policy committee to be constituted by the Central Government.
  • MPC is a 6 member committee with the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India ex-officio Chairperson.
  • The committee consists of 3 members from RBI (including RBI Governor and Deputy Governor) and 3 members appointed by the Central Government.
  • The MPC is required to meet at least four times in a year. The quorum for the meeting of the MPC is four members.
  • Related TopicsMonetary Policy

References

  1. The Hindu - For first time, RBI's rate-setting panel to discuss inflation report this week
  2. RBI - Monetary Policy

Miyawaki forest and Maze Garden

The Prime Minister inaugurated a 'Miyawaki' forest and a Maze Garden, in Gujarat's Ekta Nagar near the Statue of Unity.

  • The Maze Garden has been built in the shape of ‘Yantra’ that emanates positive energy.
  • The Maze (labyrinth) Garden, spread across 3 acres with a pathway of 2,100 metres, is the largest maze garden in the country.
  • A special watchtower has also been built to give a panoramic view of the entire garden.
  • A 'Miyawaki' forest had been created near this Maze Garden.
  •  The location chosen for the Miyawaki forest was originally used as a dumping site.

The 182-meter high Statue of Unity in Ekta Nagar is the tallest statue in the world.

Miyawaki Technique

  • Miyawaki is an afforestation technique to create urban forests based on the work of Dr Miyawaki in the 1980s.
  • The Miyawaki forest gets its name from the technique developed by Japanese botanist and ecologist Dr Akira Miyawaki.
  • Miyawaki forests are tiny forests grown on small plots of land in 2 to 3 years and are self-sustaining.
  • Method - It involves planting saplings close to each other, which develops into a dense urban forest.
  • Three layers of greens - shrubs and undergrowth, medium-height trees and taller canopies are integral components of the Miyawaki forests.
  • Mulching, natural water retention and perforation material like rice husk and use of organic compost, cow dung support their growth.
  • Before plantation, local agro-climatic conditions are studied. Around 3 to 4 saplings per sq. m of 30 or more native varieties of plants are planted.
  • Advantages - The growth of plants is 10 times faster using this method and as a result the forest developed is 30 times denser.
  • Through the Miyawaki method, a forest can be developed in just 2 to 3 years while it takes at least 20 to 30 years through the traditional method.

mazegarden

References

  1. PIB - PM dedicates Maze Garden and Miyawaki Forest in Ekta Nagar, Gujarat
  2. PM INDIA - PM dedicates Maze Garden and Miyawaki Forest in Ekta Nagar, Gujarat
  3. Business Standard - PM Modi dedicates maze garden, houseboat service near 'Statue of Unity'

AMR Salmonella

Recent studies have found the emergence of multi-drug resistant Salmonella tphimurium DT104 that causes infections in humans and cattle.

  • Salmonella enterica is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen.
  • Salmonella bacteria can be typhoidal and non-typhoidal.
  • The Salmonella serovars cause diseases like typhoid or paratyphoid fever, salmonellosis, gastroenteritis, and diarrhoea.
  • AMR in Salmonella - Resistance to multiple antibiotics is especially common in Salmonella serovars Typhimurium and Newport.
  • Many strains of S. Typhimurium Definitive Type (DT) 104 are resistant to drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracycline.
  • The emergence of drug resistant Salmonella serovars has increased the difficulties in curing Salmonella-induced illnesses worldwide.
  • Study Outcomes - The study found out a new way to combat AMR Salmonella.
  • The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Salmonella plays essential role in the survival of the pathogen under antibiotic treatment.
  • Removing OmpA resulted in a greater intake of antibiotics and killed the mutant bacteria by disrupting its outer envelope.

Diseases caused by Salmonella bacteria

  • Typhoid Fever is a gastrointestinal infection caused by Salmonella enterica typhi bacteria.
  • It is transmitted from person to person through the faecal-oral route where an infected individual passes the infection to another person when handling food and water.
  • Salmonellosis is a non-typhoidal food-borne disease in humans.
  • It is generally contracted through the consumption of contaminated food of animal origin.
  • If a live bacteria enters the body, it can attach to the cells lining the intestines where they produce toxins and attack the intestinal cells.
  • Related Topics  - Drug-resistant Typhoid, AMR, National Action Plan to Combat AMR, Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, MDR-TB

        amrsalmonella

References

  1. The Hindu - A new target found to combat AMR Salmonella

Machchhu River and Morbi Bridge

The newly-restored colonial-era suspension bridge over Machchhu River collapsed after 5 days of reopening.

Morbi Bridge

  • Locally known as the Julto Pool, it is one of the tourist attractions of Morbi district in Gujarat.
  • It had been closed for renovation for 6 months and reopened on the Gujarati New Year day.
  • The bridge was 1.25 metres wide and spanned 233 metres.
  • The bridge was originally built by the erstwhile princely state of Morbi and was considered a marvel of British engineering.
  • Sir Waghji Thakor, who ruled Morbi till 1922, was inspired by the colonial influence and decided to construct the bridge.
  • The bridge was built in 1880 to connect Darbargadh Palace with Nazarbag Palace.

Morbi is an industrial town in Gujarat with thousands of factories making ceramic tiles and bathroom products and wall clocks.

Machchhu River

  • Machchhu River originates from Madla hills (Jasdan) and meets in little Rann of Kuchchh.
  • It is a North flowing river of Saurashtra in Gujarat state.
  • The total length of this river from its origin to its outfall is 140 km.
  • There are 2 dams located on river Machchhu River - Machchhu-I & Machchhu-II.

References

  1. The Hindu - Death toll rises to 141; There will be no laxity in rescue and relief operations, says PM Modi
  2. Live Mint - Morbi cable bridge collapse in Gujarat live updates: Death toll rises to 132, PM Modi says 'pained' by tragedy
  3. Gujarat Tourism - Hanging Bridge Morbi

UNSC Counter-Terrorism Committee

India hosted the UNSC Counter-Terrorism Committee's meeting for two days in Mumbai and Delhi focusing on countering the use of new and emerging technologies for terrorist purposes.

  • The UNSC Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) meet focused on-
    1. Online radicalisation and terror recruitment,
    2. Terror financing through crypto-currency and virtual assets, and
    3. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) use including drones for terror strikes, transporting drugs and arms.
  • The host, India emphasized that the global threat of terrorism is the gravest threats to humanity.
  • The CTC unanimously adopted the ‘Delhi Declaration on countering the use of new and emerging technologies for terrorist purposes’.
  • The declaration aims to cover the main concerns surrounding the abuse of drones, social media platforms, and crowdfunding, and create guidelines that will help to tackle the growing issue.
  • The declaration will provide details on how the CTC and its executive directorate (CTED) will tackle these issues.

Counter-Terrorism Committee

  • The UNSC established a dedicated Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) of the Council in the wake of 9/11 attack.
  • The UNSC unanimously adopted Resolution 1373 (2001) for the establishment of Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC).
  • Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED) carries out its policy decisions and conducts expert assessments of the 193 United Nations Member States.
  • At present India is chairing the CTC for the second time.

United Nations Security Council

  • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) established under the United Nations Charter has the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security.
  • The Security Council has taken permanent residence at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City.
  • The Security Council has the power to make binding decisions on member states.
  • The Council has 15 members - 5 permanent members and 10 non- permanent members.

India is a non-permanent member to UNSC from the Asia-Pacific Group for a 2-year term from 2021.

References

  1. Indian Express - UNSC Counter Terrorism Committee meet: US, UK, France call for end to Ukraine war, Russia says West supplying arms to Kyiv
  2. Hindustan Times - 'Beautiful thing about India...': Top UN counter-terrorism official's praise
  3. UNSC - Counter Terrorism Committee

 

 

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