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Prelim Bits 04-12-2021 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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December 04, 2021

Global Hunger lndex 2021

The Global Hunger lndex 2021 report, prepared by 'Welthungerhilfe' and 'Concern Worldwide,' was released recently.  

  • India’s score is 27.5 and it has ranked 101 among 116 countries in the category of having a ‘serious’ hunger situation.
  • Global Hunger Index is based on four indicators - Undernourishment, Child Stunting, Child Wasting and Child Mortality.

Indicators

Definition

Undernourishment

Share of the population that is undernourished i.e., whose caloric intake is insufficient

Child wasting

Share of children under the age of 5 who are wasted (low weight for their height), reflecting acute under-nutrition

Child stunting

Share of children under the age of 5 who are stunted (low height for their age), reflecting chronic under-nutrition

Child mortality

Mortality rate of children under the age of 5 (partly, a reflection of mix of inadequate nutrition and unhealthy environments)

Components of Global Hunger lndex

  • Scoring method - Based on the values of the four indicators, the GHI determines hunger on a 100-point scale where 0 is the best possible score (no hunger) and 100 is the worst.
  • The aggregate GHI score is a weighted average of the 4 indicators: 33.33% weight each to components 1 and 4, and giving 16.66% weight each to components 2 and 3.
  • A low score gives a country a higher ranking which implies a better performance (low hunger).
  • The countries were provisionally designated by severity as below,

GHI Severity

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1777719
  2. https://www.globalhungerindex.org/ranking.html
  3. https://www.globalhungerindex.org/india.html

Swadhar Greh Scheme

  • Swadhar Greh Scheme targets the women victims of difficult circumstances who are in need of institutional support for rehabilitation so that they could lead their life with dignity.
  • [Difficult circumstances - women and girls rendered homeless due to family discord, crime, violence, mental stress, social ostracism or are being forced into prostitution and are in moral danger.]
  • The Scheme envisages providing shelter, food, clothing, health and legal aid as well as economic and social security for these women.
  • The existing Swadhar Greh Scheme is effective from 01.01.2016.
  • It is implemented by the Ministry of Women and Child Development.

Area

Funding Pattern

North Eastern & Himalayan States

90% Central share and 10% State share

Other States

60% Central share and 40% State share

Union Territories

100% Central share

  • Funds to the States/UTs are released in two instalments every year.
  • Allocation is decided considering the number of operational projects, number of new projects likely to be sanctioned in the year and availability of resources.
  • Beneficiaries - The Scheme is open to all the women above 18 years of age falling under the Scheme criteria due to any reasons, including Covid-19.
  • Swadhar Greh facilities could also be availed by the children accompanying women in the above categories.
  • Girls up to the age of 18 years and boys up to the age of 8 years would be allowed to stay in the Swadhar Greh with their mothers.
  • (Boys of more than 8 years of age need to be shifted to the Children Homes run under JJ Act/ICPS.)

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1777735
  2. https://www.india.gov.in/spotlight/swadhar-greh-scheme
  3. https://vikaspedia.in/social-welfare/women-and-child-development/women-development-1/swadhar

Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana

  • ‘Pradhan Mantri Matsya Sampada Yojana (PMMSY)’ is a flagship scheme for focused and sustainable development of fisheries sector.
  • Implemented by the Department of Fisheries, PMMSY is an umbrella scheme with two Components namely Central Sector Scheme & Centrally Sponsored Scheme.
  • The objectives of the PMMSY are:
    1. Harnessing of fisheries potential in a sustainable, responsible, inclusive and equitable manner,
    2. Enhancing of fish production and productivity through expansion, intensification, diversification & utilization of land and water,
    3. Modernizing and strengthening of value chain - post-harvest management and quality improvement,
    4. Doubling fishers and fish farmers incomes and employment generation,
    5. Enhancing contribution to Agriculture Gross Value Added (GVA) and exports,
    6. Social, physical and economic security for fishers and fish farmers,
    7. Robust fisheries management and regulatory framework.
  • The Scheme will be implemented during a period of 5 years from FY 2020-21 to FY 2024-25.

Area

Funding Pattern

North Eastern & Himalayan States

90% Central share and 10% State share

Other States

60% Central share and 40% State share

Union Territories

100% Central share

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1777694
  2. https://vikaspedia.in/agriculture/policies-and-schemes/fisheries-related/pradhan-mantri-matsya-sampada-yojana

Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund

  • In 2018-19, the Department of Fisheries launched Fisheries and Aquaculture Infrastructure Development Fund (FIDF).
  • FIDF aims to achieve a sustainable growth of 8-9%, in a move to augment the country’s fish production to the level of 20 million tonnes by 2022-23.
  • The objectives of FIDF includes,
    1. Creation and modernization of capture & culture fisheries infrastructure, Marine Aquaculture Infrastructure, and Inland Fisheries Infrastructure,
    2. Reduce post-harvest losses and improve domestic marketing facilities through infrastructure support,
    3. To bridge the resource gap and facilitate completion of ongoing infrastructure projects.
  • Duration of FIDF Scheme is 2018-19 to 2022-23 (5 years).
  • Eligible Financial assistance are,  
    1. Quantum of Loan - The project under FIDF shall be eligible for loan up to 80% of the estimated/actual project cost.
    2. Interest Subvention - Up to 3% per annum for development of identified fisheries-based infrastructure facilities.
  • Nodal Implementing Agency - National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Hyderabad.
  • Nodal Loaning Entities - NABARD, NCDC and Scheduled Banks.
  • Lending rate of interest - Not lower than 5% per annum.
  • Period of repayment - 12 years inclusive of moratorium of 2 years on repayment of principal.

 Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1777708
  2. https://nfdb.gov.in/PDF/FIDF-FAQ.pdf

National Nutrition Mission

  • National Nutrition Mission or Prime Minister’s Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nourishment (POSHAN Abhiyaan)is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Women and Child Development.
  • It was launched in 2018 with the aim of tackling the malnutrition problem prevalent in India.
  • It a comprehensive approach towards raising nutrition level in the country on a war footing. It aims to
    1. Improve nutritional status of Children from 0-6 years, Adolescent Girls, Pregnant Women and Lactating Mothers in a time bound manner and
    2. Reduce stunting and wasting in children (0-6 years)
    3. Reduce anaemia in women, children and adolescent girls.
  • Targets - It targets to reduce stunting, under- nutrition, anemia and reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% and 2% per annum respectively.
  • Although the target to reduce Stunting is atleast 2% p.a., Mission strives to achieve a reduction from 38.4% (NFHS-4) to 25% by 2022 (Mission 25 by 2022).
  • Components under POSHAN Abhiyaan include ICT Application, Convergence, Community Mobilization, Behavioural Change & Jan Andolan, Capacity Building, Incentives and Awards and Innovations.

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1777745
  2. https://vikaspedia.in/health/nrhm/national-health-programmes-1/national-nutrition-mission
  3. https://www.niti.gov.in/documents/poshan-abhiyaan-reports
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