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Prelim Bits 05-04-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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April 05, 2023

HydroSOS

The World Meteorological Organisation’s Hydrological Status and Outlook System offered data analysis tools for simulations in UN Water Conference 2023.

  • HydroSOS is a global operational mechanism of World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) for hydrological data.
  • HydroSOS integrates hydrological status assessments and outlooks from, and for National Hydrological Services (NHS).
  • It aims to provide an operational system capable of assessing the current hydrological status and its likely near-future outlook for all areas of the globe.
  • The system offers simple, accessible hydrological information to users such as government bodies, UN bodies, aid agencies, and the general public.
  • It provides hydrological products to National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHSs) for its informed decision-making.

References

  1. The Hindu - What was the U.N. water conference?
  2. WMO - Global Hydrological Status and Outlook System (HydroSOS)

W12+ Blueprint

The W12+ Blueprint committed knowledge sharing for water security challenges at Un Water Conference 2023.

w12

  • The W12+ Blueprint is one of the W12+ programs for urban water challenges.
  • The W12+ Blueprint is an online information tool for urban water solutions.
  • It was launched by two NGOs (SOS and ECOCIV) in partnership with UNESCO IHP.
  • The platform is dynamic, interactive knowledge-sharing database of case studies and best-practice water solutions at city-level.
  • The W12+ Blueprint is an informational database for solutions to urban water challenges.
  • It aims to create a tool that provides insight on how to address common urban water challenges through easy to read case studies.
  • Two cities from India are listed in this Blueprint
    1. Bengaluru - Community Leadership for Water Source Rejuvenation.
    2. Chennai - Rainwater Harvesting Policy for Enhanced Supply.

References

  1. The Hindu - What was the U.N. water conference?
  2. W12+ Blueprint

Water for Women Fund

The ‘Water for Women Fund’ offered financial support mechanisms for more effective and sustainable water outcomes for women at UN Water Conference.

  • Water for Women is supporting improved health, gender equality and wellbeing in Asian and Pacific communities through water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) projects.
  • Water for Women is the Australian Government’s flagship WASH program.
  • It is being delivered as part of Australia's development assistance program from 2018 to 2024.
  • It ensures more equitable and inclusive processes with focus on Gender equality and social inclusion in its project.
  • It aims to deliver more effective and sustainable outcomes in water, sanitation and hygiene for Asia and Pacific communities.
  • Related Topics - WASH Initiative

References

  1. The Hindu - What was the U.N. water conference?
  2. United Nations - Water for Women Fund

High-Level Political Forum 2023

The High Level Political Forum (HLPF) 2023 is set to be held in New York in July.

  • The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) established the United Nations High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF) in 2012.
  • The HLPF is the central United Nations platform for the follow-up and review of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the SDGs at the global level.
  • The Forum meets annually under the auspices of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), including a ministerial segment.
  • Every 4 years at the level of Heads of State and Government under the auspices of the General Assembly.
  • The HLPF also conducts regular reviews of the Sustainable Development Goals.

The second SDG Summit will be held in September 2023. The first SDG Summit happened in 2019.

  • HLPF 2023 - The HLPF 2023 under the auspices of the General Assembly will be held in July 2023 in New York.
  • The theme will be ‘Accelerating the recovery from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the full implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development at all levels’.
  • The HLPF in 2023 will review in-depth SDGs 6, 7, 9, 11 and 17.

hlpf2023

  • 40 countries will carry out Voluntary National Reviews (VNRs) at the HLPF 2023.
  • The VNR countries are expected to submit comprehensive written reports that will be made available in the VNR database.
  • India so far has submitted VNR twice (2017 and 2020).

References

  1. The Hindu - What was the U.N. water conference?
  2. UN - High-Level Political Forum 2023

Polymetallic Nodules

The International Seabed Authority (ISA) has decided to take permit applications in July from companies that want to mine the ocean’s floor.

  • The deep sea mining will be conducted to extract key minerals from polymetallic nodules (PMN).
  • Polymetallic nodules cover vast areas of the ocean floor (abyssal plain).
  • They are found at depths of 4 kilometers to 6 kilometers (about 2.5 miles to 3.7 miles).
  • They are more abundant in areas off the west coast of Mexico in the Pacific (known as the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone), the Central Indian Ocean Basin, and the Peru basin.
  • They are composed mainly of Manganese, Iron, silicates and hydroxides.
  • The nodules vary from micro-nodules to about 20 cm, the common size being 2 to 8 cm.
  • The trace metal contents such as Ni, Cu, Co and Mn and rare earth elements

International Seabed Authority

  • The International Seabed Authority (ISA) is an autonomous international organization established under the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
  • All mineral-resources-related activities in the international seabed area is organized and controlled by International Seabed Authority (ISA).
  • The international seabed area is defined as the seabed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction (200 nm).
  • UNCLOS outlines the areas of national jurisdiction as a 12 nautical-mile territorial sea, an exclusive economic zone of up to 200 nautical miles and a continental shelf.
  • Related Topic - Deep Ocean Mission

ISA entered into an exploration contract with the Government of India for the exploration of PMN in the Indian Ocean.

References

  1. IE - UN to start allowing deep sea mining operations from July
  2. International Seabed Authority - Polymetallic Nodules
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