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Prelim Bits 14-06-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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June 14, 2022

Web 5.0

  • Web 1.0 - It is a read-only Internet made of static web-pages.
  • Web 2.0 – It is a read and write Internet. Users were able to communicate with servers and other users leading to the creation of the social web. This is the World Wide Web that we use today.
  • It is more centralised and focused on user-created content. Eg Use of Facebook.
  • Web 3.0 is an evolving term.  It refers to the next generation “read-write-execute” Internet with decentralization as its bedrock.
  • It leverages the use of block chain technology where people can interact with each other without the need of an intermediary.
  • Web 3.0 will be driven by Artificial Intelligence and machine learning where machines will be able to interpret information like humans.
  • Web 5.0 is Web 2.0 plus Web 3.0 that will allow users to ‘own their identity’ on the Internet and ‘control their data’.
  • It is being developed by former Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey's Bitcoin business unit, The Block Head.
  • It aims at building an extra decentralized web that puts you in control of your data and identity.
  • It is built with an aim to return “ownership of data and identity to individuals”.
  • Difference between Web 3.0 and Web 5.0 – Both Web 3.0 and Web 5.0 envision an Internet without censorship from governments or big tech.

Web 3.0

Web 5.0

It isn’t truly decentralized or owned by its users.

It is a truly decentralized.

No single entity owns the information (decentralization). The data is distributed across networks.

The data and identity is owned by the user.

Gives only control of your data.

Gives you control of your data as well as your identity.

  • Eg: Bob is a music lover. He hates his personal data locked to a single vendor. Now Bob can keep this data in his decentralized web node and grant any music app access to his settings and preferences. He not need create a profile in every music app.  This makes him control his data as well as his identity.

Reference

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/everyday-explainers/what-is-web-5-0-blockchain-powered-digital-network-twitter-ex-ceo-7967663/

Coal Ban in NCR

  • The use of coal as a fuel for industrial or domestic purposes will be banned  across the National Capital Region from January 1, 2023.
  • Thermal power plants are exempted from the ban.
  • The ban will be applicable from October 1, 2022 in areas where Piped Natural Gas (PNG) infrastructure and supply is already available.
  • Contribution of the industrial sector in PM2.5 level in winter in Delhi is 30%.
  • Of this industries using coal, biomass, pet-coke and furnace oil contributed around 14%, while 8% was contributed by the brick manufacturing sector, 6% by power stations, and 2% by stone crushers.
  • The move is desirable as industries in the region consume around 1.7 million tonnes of coal annually. It is a big quantum.

Reference

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/delhi-ncr-coal-ban-explained-7962182/

Special remission to prisoners

  • As part of the ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ celebrations, the special remission would be granted to a certain category of prisoners, and they would be released in three phases — August 15, 2022, January 26, 2023 and August 15, 2023.
  • The Union Home Ministry on Monday issued a set of guidelines to the States and the Union Territories on the grant of special remission.
  • The prisoners who would qualify for premature release under the scheme are
    • women and transgender convicts of 50 years of age.
    • male convicts of 60 years and
    • Physically challenged/disabled convicts with 70% disability and more.
    • Male convicts and physically challenged convicts must have completed 50% of their total sentence period without counting the period of general remission earned.
    • terminally ill convicts
    • convicted prisoners who have completed two-thirds (66%) of their total sentence period
    • poor or indigent prisoners who have completed their sentence but are still in jail due to non-payment of fine imposed on them by waiving off the fine.
    • persons who committed an offence at a young age (18-21 years of age) and with no other criminal involvement or case against them and who have completed 50% of their sentence period.
    • The age of the convicts should be determined on the basis of the matriculation or birth certificate.
    • In the absence of both, the age given in the judgment of the trial court could be taken into consideration.
  • Prisoners who are ineligible are
    • Persons convicted with death sentence or where death sentence has been commuted to life imprisonment or persons convicted for an offence for which punishment of death has been specified as one of the punishments.
    • Persons convicted with sentence of life imprisonment.
    • Convicts involved in terrorist activities or persons convicted under
      • Terrorist and Disruptive (Prevention) Act, 1985,
      • Prevention of Terrorist Act, 2002,
      • Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967,
      • Explosives Act, 1908,
      • National Security Act, 1982,
      • Official Secrets Act, 1923,
      • Anti-Hijacking Act, 2016.
    • persons convicted under  
      • dowry death
      • counterfeiting currency notes
      • offence of rape & human trafficking
      • offences under POCSO Act, 2012
      • Immoral Trafficking Act, 1956
      • Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002
      • Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999
      • Black Money (Foreign Income and Assets) and Imposition of Tax Act, 2015
      • Narcotic Drugs Psychotropic Substances (NDPS) Act, 1985,
      • Weapons of Mass Destruction and their Delivery Systems (Prohibition and Unlawful Activities) Act, 2005,
      • Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988,
      • offences against the State (Chapter-VI of IPC) and any other law which the State governments or the Union Territory administrations consider appropriate to exclude would not qualify for the special remission.

Reference

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/special-remission-to-prisoners-to-mark-75th-year-of-independence/article65523195.ece

Central Advisory Board on Archaeology

  • The Central Advisory Board on Archaeology (CABA) was re-constituted by ASI after 7 years since its last meeting.
  • The Board is meant to bring together the officials of Centre, States and Universities as well as experts in the field of archaeology.
  • Composition
    • Chairperson – Union Minister of Culture.
    • Five persons nominated in their personal capacities by the Government of India.
    • Former Director-Generals of ASI
    • Officials from the Culture Ministry and ASI.
    • MPs
    • Nominees of State governments
    • Representatives of universities
    • Scientists and experts on Indus Valley script.
  • Functioning - The board will meet once a year and its functions would include advising the Centre on “matters relating to archaeology” referred to it by its members.
  • It may also make suggestions on such matters for the consideration of the Government.
  • It also set up a Standing Committee of the board to be chaired by the ASI D-G.

Reference

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/govt-reconstitutes-central-advisory-board-on-archaeology/article65439702.ece

Pradhan Mantri Sangrahalaya

  • The Pradhan Mantri Sangrahalaya or Museum of Prime Ministers is inaugurated at the Teen Murti complex in New Delhi.
  • Teen Murti Estate was Nehru’s residence, which was later turned into a memorial to the first Prime Minister.
  • The museum has been developed to create awareness about all 14 prime ministers of the country with ample space for future leaders as well.
  • The space recognises their contributions irrespective of ideology or tenure in office.
  • The new building is built in the shape of the Ashok Chakra.
  • The museum building incorporates sustainable and energy conservation practices.
  • No tree has been felled or transplanted during construction.
  • The logo of the building represents the hands of the people of India holding the chakra, symbolising the nation and democracy.
  • The Erstwhile Nehru Museum - The building has been seamlessly integrated with the new museum building.
  • The Nehru Museum is now designated as Block I, and has a completely updated, technologically advanced display on the life and contribution of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the nation’s first prime minister.
  • A number of gifts received by him from all over the world, but not exhibited so far, have been put on display.
  • New Building – It has 43 galleries, and can accommodate 4,000 visitors at a time.
  • A levitating emblem is the centrepiece of the reception zone, and ‘Glimpses of the Future’ on the ground floor allows visitors to be virtually part of future projects.
  • Personal items collected from families of of various PMs is put for display
  • The Shastri gallery highlights his role in the Green Revolution and the Indo-Pak war of 1965.
  • The Indira gallery highlights India’s role in the liberation of Bangladesh, and the nationalisation of banks.
  • The Vajpayee gallery celebrates him as a great parliamentarian and orator, and highlights India’s victory in the Kargil War and the Pokhran nuclear tests.
  • The economic reforms of the early 1990s and the civil nuclear deal with the US are highlighted among Manmohan Singh’s contributions.

Reference

  1. https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/pradhanmantri-sangrahalaya-technology-concept-content-explained-7871297/
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