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Prelim Bits 15-10-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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October 15, 2022

Global Hunger Index 2022

India ranks 107 out of 121 countries on the Global Hunger Index in which it fares worse than all countries in South Asia except Afghanistan.

  • The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is an annual report, jointly published by Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe.
  • The GHI is a tool for comprehensively measuring and tracking hunger at global, regional, and national levels.
  • GHI scores are based on the values of four indicators
    • Undernourishment – Insufficient caloric intake.
    • Child wasting - Malnourished or emaciated.
    • Child stunting - Low body weight to height.
    • Child mortality – Children who die before their 5th birthday.
  • Calculation of GHI

ghicalculation

  • The GHI 2022 found that South Asia has the world's highest levels of child stunting and child wasting.
  • South Saharan countries in Africa have the highest levels of undernourishment and child mortality rates.
  • GHI in South Asian countries

                                    ghisouthasia

  • India - India scores 29.1 indicating it has a serious level of hunger.
  • Rank – 107 out of 121 countries (India ranked 101 in 2021)

           ghiindia

  • 16.3% of the population in India is undernourished
  • 19.3% of the children under 5 are wasted.
  • 35.5% of the children under 5 are stunted.
  • 3.3% of child mortality.

References

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/india-ranks-107-out-of-121-countries-on-global-hunger-index/article66010797.ece?homepage=true
  2. https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/global-hunger-index-2022-india-slips-six-places-ranked-107-of-121-countries-101665804181638.html
  3. https://www.globalhungerindex.org/india.html

‘No First Use’ Commitment

The successful launch of a Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile proves India’s nuclear deterrence capability that underpins India's policy of 'credible minimum deterrence' and 'no first use' commitment.

  • No First Use policy is India’s commitment to not be the first to use a nuclear weapon in a conflict.
  • No First Use pledge is a component of a country’s Nuclear Doctrine, adopted from 2003.
  • India’s Nuclear Doctrine
    1. India will build and maintain a credible minimum deterrence.
    2. India will use Nuclear weapons only in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Indian Territory or on Indian forces.
    3. In the event of an attack against India, or Indian forces anywhere, by biological or chemical weapons, India will retain the option of retaliating with nuclear weapons.
    4. India would not use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear weapon states.
    5. India would continue to put strict controls on the export of nuclear and missile related materials and technologies.
    6. India remains committed to the goal of a nuclear weapons free world, through global, verifiable and non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament.
  • Nuclear Command Authority - According to the doctrine, nuclear retaliatory attacks can only be authorised by the Nuclear Command Authority.
  • The Nuclear Command Authority comprises a Political Council and an Executive Council.
  • The Political Council is chaired by the Prime Minister.  
  • The Executive Council is chaired by the National Security Advisor.
  • Nuclear powered neighbours of India - China declared its No First Use policy in 1964, and has since maintained this policy.
  • Pakistan does not have No First Use policy.
  • India signed US-India Civil Nuclear Agreement in 2005 to resume full nuclear trade with the US.

References

  1.  https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1867778
  2. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/ins-arihant-launches-submarine-launched-ballistic-missile/article66010395.ece
  3. https://archive.pib.gov.in/archive/releases98/lyr2003/rjan2003/04012003/r04012003html#:~:text=A%20posture%20of%20%22No%20First,designed%20to%20inflict%20unacceptable%20damage.

INS Tarkash

The Indian Navy was represented by INS Tarkash in the 7th edition of IBSAMAR exercise held at Port Gqeberha (also known as Port Elizabeth), South Africa.

IBSAMAR is a joint multinational maritime exercise, among the Indian, Brazilian and South Africa navies.

  • INS Tarkash is a state-of-the-art stealth frigate of the Indian Navy.
  • It is the 5th Talwar-class frigate constructed for the Indian Navy, built at the Yantar shipyard in Kaliningrad, Russia.
  • It is equipped with a versatile range of weapons and sensors capable of addressing threats in all three dimensions.
  • Talwar Class warships active in Indian Navy
    1. INS Talwar
    2. INS Trishul
    3. INS Tabar
    4. INS Teg
    5. INS Tarkash
    6. INS Trikand
  • Talwar class frigates are guided missile frigates designed and built by Russia.
  • These frigates are armed with BrahMos supersonic missiles.
  • Talwar frigates are designed to detect and eliminate enemy submarines and large surface ships.

References

  1. https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1867619
  2. https://www.naval-technology.com/news/newsins-tarkash-completes-sea-trials-for-indian-navy/

Grameen Udyami Project

Skill India certifies candidates trained under the second phase of Grameen Udyami Project to boost skill development in tribal communities.

  • Grameen Udhyami is a unique multi-skilling project funded by the National Skill Development Corporation.

National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) is a not-for-profit company that aims to promote skill development.

  • Grameen Udhyami Project aims to skill tribal youth across India to enable them to create a perennial stream of income without having to migrate to urban areas.
  • Implementation - Grameen Udyami Yojana is implemented under Sansadiya Parisankul Yojana.
  • The project is being implemented in six states - Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, and Gujarat.
  • Training - Transportation, boarding & lodging during the learning period is provided to candidates by the implementation Agencies.
  • The training under the project will be conducted in the Job roles which are relevant to the local economy.
  • It focuses on agriculture, fisheries, and forest-related roles to suit the local demand.
  • Skilling will also be done in upcoming sectors like construction, food processing, handicraft, healthcare, BFSI, IT-ITES, etc.
  • The content and curriculum will also include employability skills, financial and digital literacy, and entrepreneurship modules.
  • Similar Project - Udyami Bharat Programme

References

  1. https://www.pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1867519
  2. http://grameenudhyami.org/
  3. https://vikaspedia.in/schemesall/schemes-for-unemployed-and-poor/grameen-udyami-yojana

ABO-incompatible Organ Transplant

Manipal Hospital, Yeshwanthpur, became the first hospital in Karnataka to complete 27 ABO-incompatible kidney transplants.

The first ABO-incompatible kidney transplant was performed in India in the year 2011.

  • ABO-incompatible transplant is done when blood types of the receiver and donor are different.
  • Such transplants are very complex and done by suppressing the levels of antibodies in the recipient’s body.

           aboincompatibility

  • If there is a mismatch in the blood of donor and recipient, antibodies in recipient’s body reject transplanted organs.
  • In ABO-incompatible transplant, these antibodies are removed through plasmapheresis.

Plasmapheresis is a process in which the liquid part of the blood, or plasma, is separated from the blood cells.

  • Immunosuppressants are also given to reduce the chances of rejection.
  • The ABO-incompatible transplants have similar success rates as a standard transplant.

References

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/bangalore/abo-incompatible-organ-donors-and-recipients-share-their-experiences/article66002132.ece
  2. https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/bengaluru/2022/oct/13/abo-incompatible-kidney-transplants-find-more-success-2507566.html
  3. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/lucknow/abo-transplant-a-ray-of-hope-for-chronic-kidney-patients/articleshow/86723216.cms
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