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Prelim Bits 22-11-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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November 22, 2022

Great knot

A great knot from Russia has found its way to Kerala’s coast, flying over 9,000 km for a winter sojourn.

  • Great Knot (Calidris tenuirostris) is a long-distance migrant that largely travels along the coast making few stopovers.
  • The migratory bird traverse the Central Asian Flyway (CAF), one of the 9 most important flyways of migratory birds.

greatknot

  • Distribution – They breed in north-east Siberia, stage in the Yellow Sea and winter in Australia.
  • The Great Knot is a regular though uncommon non-breeding visitor (October to March) on the entire east coast of India and especially the south east coast.
  • Threats - Habitat destruction, pollution and commercial development.
  • Conservation Status
  1. IUCN - Endangered
  2. CMS - Appendix I

References

  1. The Hindu - Great knot sighting untangles a migration mystery
  2. IUCN - Great Knot - Calidris tenuirostris

National Suicide Prevention Strategy

The union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare rolled out a National Suicide Prevention Strategy.

  • National Suicide Prevention Strategy is the first of its kind in the country, with time-bound action plans and multi-sectoral collaborations.
  • The Strategy seeks to -
  1. Establish effective surveillance mechanisms for suicide within the next 3 years;
  2. Establish psychiatric outpatient departments that will provide suicide prevention services through the District Mental Health Programme in all districts within the next 5 years;
  3. Integrate a mental well-being curriculum in all educational institutions within the next 8 years.
  • It also envisages to develop guidelines for responsible media reporting of suicides, and restricting access to means of suicide.

In India, more than one lakh lives are lost every year to suicide, and it is the top killer in the 15-29 years category.

  • The strategy framed to suit India’s milieu, is also in line with the WHO’s South East-Asia Region Strategy for suicide prevention.
  • The strategy aims to achieve reduction in suicide mortality by 10% by 2030.
  • The Ministry also launched Tele-MANAS for tele mental health services.

India decriminalised suicide in 2017 through the Mental Healthcare Act (MHCA) of 2017.

References

  1. The Hindu – The country’s first suicide prevention policy

Namda and Nuno felting

Kashmiri artisan has blended Kashmiri traditional art with Australia's Nuno felting technique and created unique products.

  • The traditional Kashmiri carpet which originated in the 11th century during the reign of Akbar, is called Namda.
  • Namda was invented when Akbar ordered for a suitable coverage for his horse who was affected by biting cold.
  • The tradition of making Namda is handed down through generations.

Namda is a term used for felted wool floor coverings (carpets).

  • Method -The carpets are made by felting sheep wool rather than weaving it. The felted carpets are predominately made of pure sheep wool.
  • Namda is usually a sandwich of many layers of wool flattened over each other using ‘pinjra’ (woven willow wicker).
  • The plain Namda is then hand embroidered using ‘Aari Kaam’ colourful dyed threads with Kashmiri Aari Embroidery.
  • Namda is then washed and dried, and made ready to use.
  • This Kashmiri handicraft (Namda carpets) are sold both in local and international markets.

namda

  • Nuno felting - It is a felting method created in Australia years ago.
  • Nuno felting is a technique for fusing loose fibers (typically sheep’s wool) into sheer fabrics like silk, rayon, etc.

References

  1. The Citizen - Nuno felting Kashmiri artisan
  2. ZEE News - Making traditional ‘Namda’ with a new twist
  3. Hindustan Times – Namda: The traditional felted craft of Kashmir

Global Partnership on AI

India assumed its Chair of the Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI).

  • The 3rd edition of the annual Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI) summit was held in Tokyo with France as its chair.
  •  India takes over as Council Chair of GPAI for 2022-23.
  • Launch - Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI) is an international initiative to support responsible and human-centric development and use of Artificial Intelligence (AI).
  • GPAI is the idea of G7 and launched in 2020 with 15 members.
  • Members - GPAI is a congregation of 25 member countries with India joining them in 2020 as a founding member.
  • It is a first-of-its-type initiative for evolving better understanding of challenges and opportunities around AI.
  • Working – OECD is hosting the GPAI Secretariat.
  • GPAI is a multi-stakeholder initiative working with leading experts from science, industry, civil society, international organizations and government.
  • It aims to promote responsible evolution of AI and guide the responsible development and use of AI, grounded in human rights, inclusion, diversity, innovation, and economic growth.

References

  1. PIB - India takes over as Council Chair of GPAI
  2. Hindustan Times - What is GPAI?
  3. Live Mint - India assumes chair of the GPAI
  4. Global Partnership on AI

Framework to curb Fake reviews

The Union government unveiled a framework of standards to curb fake reviews on e-commerce websites.

  • Reviews play a critical role in shopping in e-commerce. They are more important in 3 sectors, namely - Tour and travel; Restaurant and eateries; and Consumer durables.
  • The Department of Consumer Affairs constituted a committee to develop a framework on checking fake and deceptive reviews in e-commerce in June, 2022.
  • The committee included various stakeholders including
  1. E-commerce companies,
  2. Industry associations,
  3. Consumer organizations and
  4. Law chairs.
  • Standard - The framework named ‘Indian Standard (IS) 19000:2022 Online Consumer Reviews — Principles and Requirements for their Collection, Moderation and Publication’, is prepared by the Bureau of Indian Standards.
  • The standard is meant to protect consumer interest in e-commerce from the impact of fake and deceptive reviews and will come into effect from November 25th 2022.
  • Provisions - The standard provides for responsibilities of organization including developing a code of practice, and necessary stipulations for terms and conditions.
  • The standard also provides for methods for verification of review author to check traceability and genuineness of the review author.
  • Identification by telephone call or SMS, verification through email address, confirming registration by clicking on a link, using captcha system are few suggested methods for verification of review author.
  • Applicability - The standards will apply to every online platform which publishes consumer reviews and to everyone who publishes reviews online (both solicited and unsolicited reviews).
  • Compliancy – Voluntary initially. E-commerce entities can get checked and certified from BIS.
  • If made mandatory, the violation of the standard is punishable as ‘unfair trade practice’ or ‘violation of consumer rights’.

References

  1. The Hindu - Centre sets ‘standard’ for product reviews
  2. Indian Express - Framework to curb fake reviews
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