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Prelim Bits 29-10-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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October 29, 2022

Global TB Report 2022

The World Health Organisation (WHO) released the Global TB Report 2022 highlighting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on TB all over the world.

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top infectious killers in the world especially of people with HIV.
  • The Report notes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis, treatment and burden of disease for TB all over the world.

Key Findings

  • TB Incidence - An estimated 10.6 million people fell ill with tuberculosis (TB) in 2021 (4.5% increase from 2020).
  • TB Death - 1.6 million People died from TB (including HIV positive people)
  • Drug-Resistant TB - The burden of drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) also increased by 3% between 2020 and 2021.
  • Role of Nutrition - Under-nutrition is a contributory factor to the development of active TB disease.
  • Preventive Treatment - TB preventive treatment for people living with HIV has far surpassed the global target of 6 million in the period 2018-2022, reaching more than 10 million.
  • India is one among the 7 countries that has accounted for 82% of those who started on preventive treatment in 2021.

India Specific Findings

  • With the note of WHO Global TB Report 2022, the Health Ministry has announced that India has, performed far better on major metrics as compared to other countries over time.
  • India's TB incidence for the year 2021 is 210 per 100,000 population.
  • Irrespective of the disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the National TB Elimination Programme notified over 21.4 lakh TB cases which is 18% higher than 2020.
  • In 2021, over 22 crore people were screened for TB across the country for early detection and treatment of TB.
  • This has contributed to the decline in incidence.
  • Under the new initiative Pradhan Mantri TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyan, more than 40,000 Ni-kshay Mitras are supporting over 10.45 Lakh TB patients all over the country.

For Related Topics - BPal treatment, PM TB Mukt Bharat Abhiyaan, Ni-kshay Mitra, click here.

References

  1. PIB - WHO Global TB Report 2022
  2. The Hindu - 21.4 lakh TB cases notified in India in 2021, 18% higher than 2020: Health Ministry
  3. Business-Standard - TB cases notified in India in 2021 18% higher than 2020: Health Ministry
  4. WHO - Tuberculosis deaths and disease increase during the COVID-19 pandemic

Tambo art

A farmer from Wayanad creates different patterns including Ashoka Chakra in his paddy field using Tambo art.

  • Tambo art means paddy art in Japanese.
  • Tambo Art uses rice fields as a canvas to create huge design works by planting rice with different coloured leaves and grain heads.
  • Paddy art originated in the small town of Inakadate village in south Japan.
  • The project began to germinate in 1993, with the aim of the economic recovery of the region which is in decline.
  • Rice plantations are done in the areas without using any machines.
  • The farmers decided to celebrate 2000 years of rice cultivation.

                         tamboart

How Tambo art is made?

  • First a design is chosen and farmers cultivate the rice seedlings required for the design.
  • Along with the seedlings in the nursery, the rice fields also tilled and fertilized and prepared.
  • Next, you make a base drawing of the design and
  • A surveyor makes a design blueprint for the stakeout based on the base drawing of the design.
  • The area is then surveyed according to the coordinates written on the design blueprint and the field is staked out.
  • The rice fields are finally planted with the specified variety of seedling to be planted in each section.
  • As the seedling grows, the different colour of the paddy gives out beautiful designs.

References

  1. The Hindu – Wayanad farmer creates Ashoka chakra using Tambo art to promote rice cultivation
  2. India TV News – Pune based agriculturist creates Lord Ganesha idol on farm using Japanese craft Tambo ato

Coffee Industry in India

Drastic changes in climate patterns over the last few years have adversely impacted India’s coffee production and the quality of the crop.

  • India is renowned for its well-shade grown coffee.
  • India stands between the top 10 countries in terms of production of coffee and it exports about 70% of the produce.
  • There are two varieties of coffee cultivated in India viz Arabica and Robusta the two have different aromatic properties
  • Coffee cultivation in India is mostly confined to the highlands of Western Ghats in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • Coffee cultivation is also being expanding in the non-traditional areas of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha as well as in the North East states.
  • The state of Karnataka contributes about 70% to the production of coffee followed by Kerala and then the Nilgiri hill region of Tamil Nadu.

        coffeemap

Issues in Coffee Production in India

  • In India the cultivation of coffee is becoming a very expensive and loss making proposition.
  • The high cost of inputs and shortage of labour coupled with the unpredictable climatic patterns have worsened the situation.

Coffee Board of India

  • Coffee Board of India was established under the Coffee Act of 1942 in 1942 and it is headquartered in Bangalore.
  • The organization is managed by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry to promote coffee production in India.
  • Coffee Boards traditional duties include
    1. Promotion of the sale and consumption of coffee in India and abroad,
    2. Conducting coffee research,
    3. Financial assistance to establish small coffee growers,
    4. Safeguarding working conditions for labourers,
    5. Managing the surplus pool of unsold coffee.

Coffee Crop

  • Coffee is a tropical plantation crop. Coffee beans are roasted, ground and are used for preparing the beverage.

Factors

Arabica

Robusta

Soils

Deep, fertile, rich in organic matter, well drained and slightly acidic (Ph6.0-6.5)

Same as Arabica

Slopes

Gentle to moderate slopes

Gentle slopes to fairly level fields

Elevation

1000-1500m

500-1000m

Temperature

150 C – 25 0 C ; cool, equable

200 C – 300 C; hot, humid

Annual rainfall

1600-2500 mm

1000-2000 mm

 

References

  1. The Hindu - A crisis is brewing in the coffee industry
  2. Asiana Times - A brewing crisis in the Indian coffee industry
  3. Coffee Board of India - MoCI

Study team on UFO

NASA has formed a new team to investigate 'unidentified aerial phenomena' (UAPs) or 'unidentified flying objects' (UFOs).

  • Unidentified Aerial Phenomena (UAP) refers to things in the sky that cannot be identified as aircraft or natural phenomena, or commonly known as UFOs.
  • NASA has selected 16 individuals to be part of its independent study team on UAPs.
  • The team’s research will lay the groundwork for studies of UAPs in the future.
  • The study on UAPs has national security and air safety implications as well.
  • The study will focus solely on unclassified data.
  • A full report of the team’s findings will be released to the public in mid-2023.
  • The team's three-pronged approach are
    1. Identifying available UAP data,
    2. Figuring out ways to gather more data in the future and
    3. Developing methods for studying that data.

References

  1. Indian Express - NASA announces new team to study UFOs
  2. NASA - NASA to Set Up Independent Study on Unidentified Aerial Phenomena
  3. Live Science - UFOs are finally getting the big NASA study they deserve

Fungal Pathogen List

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has released the first-ever fungal priority pathogen list to identify fungi which pose the greatest threat to public health.

  • The fungal priority pathogens list (FPPL) is a catalogue of the 19 fungi that represent the greatest threat to public health.
  • The FPPL aims to focus and drive further research and policy interventions to strengthen the global response to fungal infections and antifungal resistance.

World Health Organisation released first-ever priority pathogen list for bacteria in 2017.

  • Fungi are becoming an increasingly common threat to public health.
  • Those most at risk of being impacted by fungi on the list are those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, chronic respiratory disease, or post-primary tuberculosis infection.
  • At present, only four classes of antifungal medicines are available and few candidates in the clinical pipeline.
  • The FPPL has been divided into three categories based on the pathogen’s public health impact or emerging antifungal resistance risk.
      1. Critical,
      2. High and
      3. Medium priority.
  • The report also proposes actions and strategies for policymakers, public health professionals and other stakeholders to improve the overall response to these pathogens.
  • Three primary areas for action are proposed, focusing on:
  1. Strengthening laboratory capacity and surveillance;
  2. Sustainable investments in research, development, and innovation; and
  3. Public health interventions.

References

  1. Down-To-Earth - Who Releases First-Ever Fungal Priority Pathogen List
  2. Live Mint - Who Releases First-Ever Fungal Priority Pathogen List
  3. WHO - WHO releases first-ever list of health-threatening fungi
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