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Prelim Bits 09-11-2022 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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November 09, 2022

G20 Logo and Theme 

The Prime Minister unveiled the Logo, Theme and Website of India’s G20 Presidency. 

  • On December 1, 2022, India will assume the presidency of the G20 grouping from the current chair Indonesia. 
  • The logo and the theme together convey a powerful message of India’s G20 Presidency, which is of striving for just and equitable growth for all in the world. 
  • The logo draws upon elements from various entries received under the contest organized on MyGov portal. 
  • The website of India’s G20 Presidency (www.g20.in) and a mobile app ‘G20 India’ was also launched by the Prime Minister. 

G20 Logo

g20logo

  • The G20 Logo draws inspiration from the vibrant colours of India’s national flag - saffron, white and green, and blue. 
  • The logo juxtaposes planet Earth with the lotus, India’s national flower that reflects growth amid challenges. 
  • The Earth reflects India’s pro-planet approach to life, one in perfect harmony with nature. 
  • Below the G20 logo is ‘Bharat’ written in the Devanagari script

G20 Theme

g20theme

  • The theme of India’s G20 Presidency is ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ (meaning - the whole earth is a family) written in Devanagari script or ‘One Earth One Family One Future’
  • The theme is drawn from the ancient Sanskrit text of the Maha Upanishad. 
  • The theme affirms the value of all life – human, animal, plant, and microorganisms and their interconnectedness on the planet Earth and in the wider universe. 
  • The theme also spotlights Mission LiFE (Lifestyle For Environment), with its associated, environmentally sustainable and responsible choices, both at the individual and national level. 

References

  1. PIB - Unveiling of The Logo, Theme and Website of India’s G20 Presidency
  2. The Indian Express - PM Modi unveils G20 logo
  3. The Hindu - PM Modi unveils logo, theme, website of G20 presidency

Beaver Blood Moon

Total lunar eclipses which occurred in October will be the last of 2022 and will only occur again after three years.

Total lunar eclipses usually occur on average of about once every year and a half.

  • A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth casts its shadow completely over a full moon, blocking reflection of all direct sunlight from the lunar orb and dimming the colour of the moon to a reddish hue.
  • Blood Moon - When the moon is within the umbra, it appears with a reddish hue due to Rayleigh’s scattering of light by the earth’s atmosphere.

Rayleigh scattering effect is the scattering of light by particles in a medium without a change in wavelength.

redmoon

  • A November full moon is called Beaver Moon because it happens during the month of November when the beavers begin taking shelter in their lodges.
  • The combined phenomena of total lunar eclipse and the Beaver moon is called Beaver Blood Moon.

Lunar Eclipse

A lunar eclipse happens when the Earth is positioned between the Sun and the Moon and the Earth casts a shadow on the Moon.

The shadow is categorised into two parts

  • Umbra - The darkest shadow of the earth that blocks out sunlight completely

  • Penumbra - The outermost part of the shadow, where sunlight is blocked out only partially.

References

  1. The Hindu - 'Beaver blood moon' offers world's last total lunar eclipse until 2025
  2. The Hindu - What makes the November 8 lunar eclipse unique?
  3. Down To Earth - Painting it red! Striking ‘Blood Moon’ to eclipse skies

Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary

The Tamil Nadu government has notified the Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary, the 17th wildlife sanctuary in the State.

  • Location - The Sanctuary spreads across the reserve forests of Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri districts of Tamil Nadu.
  • The Cauvery South Wildlife sanctuary adjoins the Cauvery North Wildlife Sanctuary in Tamil Nadu with the Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary in Karnataka.
  • The declared landscape lends continuity to the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve through 2 tiger Reserves and 1 Wildlife Sanctuary.
    1. Malai Mahadeshwara Wildlife Sanctuary
    2. BRT Tiger Reserve of Karnataka
    3. Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve of Tamil Nadu.
  • Legal Provision - The State Government notified the sanctuary under Section 26-A of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • Biodiversity - The sanctuary’s rich biodiversity supports over 35 species of mammals and 238 species of birds.
  • Fauna - Leith’s soft shelled turtles, smooth coated otters, marsh crocodile, Grizzled giant squirrel, four-horned antelope and Lesser Fish Eagle are few fauna found here.
  • The sanctuary is critical for a large number of riverine species in the Cauvery River basin.
  • Elephant Habitat - The sanctuary also comprises 2 elephant corridors:
    1. The Nandimangalam-Ulibanda Corridor
    2. The Kovaipallam-Anebiddahalla Corridor

References

  1. The Indian Express - Tamil Nadu notifies Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary
  2. The Hindu - Tamil Nadu notifies Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary
  3. Deccan Herald - Tamil Nadu notifies reserve forests in two districts as Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary

Olakkuda Ezhunnallath

Folkland, an NGO and S.K. Potakkad Culture Centre hosts the Olakudda Ezhunallath at S.K. Pottakkad Cultural Centre in Kozhikode.

  • Olakudda Ezhunallath a festival of palm leaf umbrellas.
  • A first of its kind in India, the festival not only aims to promote the olakkuda but also reimagine it in ways to make it a more popular product.

Olakkuda

  • Olakkuda has a socio-cultural significance in Kerala given its extensive use in rituals, Theyyam, and other performing arts.
  • Olakkuda is the umbrella made using dried palm leaves, bamboo, and cane.
  • The olakkuda comes in various shapes, sizes, and designs.

olakkuda

  • They are of two main varieties of Olakkuda.
    1. Thoppikkuda that fits on the head like a big hat.
    2. Kalkkuda that resembles an umbrella.
  • There are different types of olakuddas used for different purposes.

Type

Used By/For

Kaalkuda

Arakuda

Thoppikkuda

Theyyakkuda

Mavelikkudda

Children

Women

Farm hands and fishermen

Theyyam oracles

Onam

  • Olakkuda in performing arts - Olakkuda has significant use in different performing arts like

    1. Kuchelavritham Kathakali – A Kathakali play
    2. Aati Kalinja - A ritual dance that brings prosperity during month of Aadi.
    3. Porattu natakam - A folk theatre in Thrissur district.

References

  1. The Hindu - Olakkuda Ezhunnallath, a festival of palm leaf umbrellas

Mother Tongue Survey of India

The Ministry of Home Affairs has completed the Mother Tongue Survey of India with field videography of the country’s 576 languages.

  • The Mother Tongue Survey of India (MTSI) is a project that surveys the mother tongues, which are returned consistently across two and more Census decades.
  • MTSI also documents the linguistic features of the selected languages.

The category ‘mother tongue’ is a designation provided by the respondent, but it need not be identical with the actual linguistic medium.

Video Archive at NIC

  • The Home Ministry in its annual report for 2021-2022, planned to set up a web archive at the National Informatics Centre (NIC).
  • The archive is used to preserve and analyse the original flavour of each indigenous mother tongue.
  • The NIC and the National Film Development Corporation (NFDC) documents the linguistic data of the surveyed mother tongues in audio-video files.
  • The video graphed speech data of mother tongues will be uploaded on the NIC server.

The Linguistic Survey of India is a regular research activity in the country since the 6th Five Year Plan.

2011 Linguistic Census

  • More than 19,500 languages or dialects are spoken in India as mother tongues.
  • After subjecting these returns to linguistic scrutiny, edit and rationalisation, they were grouped into 121 mother tongues.

References

  1. The Indian Express - Mother Tongue Survey of India is ready
  2. Times of India - Government completes mother tongue survey of 576 languages

 

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