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Prelim Bits 28-03-2023 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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March 28, 2023

Sarus crane

The Forest department has filed a case and issued a notice to an Uttar Pradesh man who rescued a Sarus crane and took care of it for a year.

  • The Sarus crane is the tallest flying bird in the world.
  • They are found mostly in pairs or small groups of 3 or 4.
  • They mate for life with a single partner and its breeding season coincides with heavy rainfall in monsoon.
  • They are known for their ability to live in association with humans.


  • Diet - Omnivorous; they feed on fish and insects, as well as roots and plants.
  • Habitat - Typically wades in shallow wetlands or in cropped agricultural areas.
  • Distribution - Sarus crane has 3 disjunct populations - the Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia and northern Australia.
  • Threats - Habitat loss and degradation due to draining the wetland and conversion of land for agriculture.
  • Conservation



Wildlife Protection Act, 1972

Schedule I




Appendix II


Appendix II

Sarus crane is the official State bird of Uttar Pradesh.

Possession of Wildlife in India

  • No person is allowed to acquire or keep in his possession, custody or control any wildlife which is state property, under Section 39 of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • If anyone does so they must report it to the nearest police station or the authorised officer within 48-hours of obtaining such possession.
  • Burden of proof - Further, under Section 57 of the Act, if a person is found in possession, custody or control of any wildlife, the burden of proof for establishing that it is not illegal is on the person.


  1. IE - The special bond between the Sarus crane and an Indian farmer
  2. New Indian Express -  Sarus rescuer gets Forest department notice
  3. WWF-India - Sarus crane
  4. IUCN - Sarus Crane

Coffee Berry Borer

The Coffee Board has issued an advisory to coffee farmers to tackle the attack of berry borer in Robusta coffee plants.

  • Pest - Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei)
  • Coffee berry borers are a small species of beetle that live, feed and breed inside coffee berries.
  • The damage to the berry severely impacts the quality of coffee beans produced.
  • Infestation - Pinhole at the tip of berries indicates presence of the pest.
  • Female beetle bores into the berries through the navel region and feed on the inside content.
  • Infested berries may fall due to injury or secondary infection.
  • Severe infestation may result in heavy crop loss.
  • Control Measure - Brocca traps is an effective measure to control berry borer population in coffee plantations.


  1. The Hindu - Berry borer infestation
  2. Coffee Board of India - Pests and Diseases

Bharat 6G Vision

The Prime Minister unveiled the Bharat 6G Vision Document in the ITU Area Office in Vigyan Bhawan.

  • The Bharat 6G Vision Document lays out a roadmap to roll out 6G services across the country by 2030.
  • 6G will be implemented in 2 phases (2023 - 2025 and 2025 - 2030).
  • An apex council will be set up to oversee the project and deal with issues related to it.
  • The apex council will facilitate and finance research and development, design and development of 6G technologies by Indian start-ups, companies, research bodies and universities.
  • The document is prepared by the Technology Innovation Group on 6G (TIG-6G).
  • TIG-6G was constituted in 2021 to develop a roadmap and action plans for 6G in India.
  • The national mission for 6G will have a 9-year tenure (2022-2031), with funding in 3 tranches.
  • The mission will catalyse coordination and interactions between various stakeholders in Centre and State governments as well as with industry and academia.
  • 6G Test Bed will provide a platform to test and validate the evolving ICT technologies.
  • The Bharat 6G Vision Document and 6G Test Bed will be key in boosting the faster technology adoption in the country.

International Telecommunication Union (ITU)

  • ITU is the United Nations' specialised agency for information and communication technologies (ICTs).
  • It is headquartered in Geneva and has a network of field offices, regional Offices and area offices.
  • ITU Area Office - The ITU Area Office is fully funded by India.
  • It is located in the Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DoT) building at Mehrauli, New Delhi.
  • It will serve India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Afghanistan and Iran, promoting economic cooperation in the region.


  1. Live Mint -  PM launches Bharat 6G vision document
  2. Outlook - What Is Bharat 6G Vision Document?
  3. Business Line - 6G: How India is gearing up for this game-changer

Daylight Saving Time

Lebanon saw mass confusion after its government decided to delay Daylight Saving Time (DST) by a month.

  • Daylight Saving Time (DST) is the practice of setting the clocks forward one hour from the standard time during the summer and back again in the autumn.
  • This practice is done to make better use of natural daylight.
  • Northern Hemisphere - Many countries in the Northern Hemisphere use DST in the summer time, but not all.
  • Daylight Saving Time usually starts in March-April and ends in September-November when the countries return to standard time, or winter time.        
  • India does not follow daylight saving time as countries near the Equator do not experience high variations in daytime hours between seasons.
  • Southern Hemisphere - In the Southern Hemisphere the participating countries usually start the DST period in September-November and end DST in March-April.
  • History - For the first time in the world, the town of Thunder Bay in Ontario, Canada implemented DST in 1908.
  • Germany started following DST since 1916 and became the first country in the world to use DST on a national level.


  1. IE - Chaos in Lebanon over what time it is?
  2. Time and Date -  Daylight Saving Time

Sukanya Samriddhi Account Scheme

  • ‘Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana’ is a small deposit scheme for girl child, launched as a part of the ‘Beti Bachao-Beti Padhao’ initiative in 2015.
  • ‘Sukanya Samriddhi Account’ (SSA) can be opened at any time from the birth of a girl child till she attains the age of 10 years.
  • The account offers a higher interest rate as well as several tax benefits.
  • The account can be opened in any post office or authorised branches of commercial banks.
  • The account requires a minimum deposit of Rs 250 and a maximum of Rs 1.5 lakh in a year.
  • Interest - The government determines the SSY scheme's interest rate is calculated quarterly and it is compounded annually.
  • Currently, the interest rate has been reduced from 8.4% to 7.6%.
  • Interest not payable - Expiration of scheme's duration or if the girl becomes a Non-resident Indian (NRI) or a non-citizen.
  • Maturity - After 21 years of opening or, in the event of the marriage of the girl child after she gains the age of 18 years.

Interest Calculation of SSA

  • The central government reviews the interest rates of small savings schemes like SSA every quarter based on the G-Secs yields of the previous 3 months in the secondary market.
  • This is to ensure that the interest rates of small savings schemes are market-linked, as per the recommendations of the Shyamala Gopinath Committee, 2011.


  1. The Hindu - SSA interest rate hike may remain elusive
  2. Economic Times - Hike in PPF, Sukanya Samriddhi schemes’ interest rates?
  3. Vikaspedia - Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana
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