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Prelim Bits 28-12-2021 | UPSC Daily Current Affairs

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December 28, 2021

State Health Index

NITI Aayog releases the fourth edition of the State Health Index Report for 2019-2020, titled “Healthy States, Progressive India”.

  • The State Health Index has been developed by NITI Aayog, with technical assistance from the World Bank, and in close consultation with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW).
  • This annual report, compiled and published since 2017, ranks the states and UTs on their year-on-year incremental performance in health outcomes and their overall status.
  • This index looks at both the states’ historical performance and their incremental performance.
  • To ensure comparison among similar entities, the ranking is categorized as ‘Larger States’, ‘Smaller States’ and ‘Union Territories’.
  • The State Health Index is a weighted composite index based on 24 indicators grouped under the domains of
    1. Health Outcomes,
    2. Governance and Information, and
    3. Key Inputs/Processes.
  • Each domain has been assigned weights based on its importance with higher score for outcome indicators.
  • This tool is linked to incentives under National Health Mission. This has been instrumental in shifting the focus from budget spending and inputs to outputs and outcomes.

Findings

  • The recent report focuses on the period 2018-2019 to 2019-2020.
  • On overall ranking based on the composite index score in 2019–20, the top-ranking states were
    1. Kerala and Tamil Nadu among the ‘Larger States’,
    2. Mizoram and Tripura among the ‘Smaller States’, and
    3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (DH&DD) and Chandigarh among the UTs.
  • Among the ‘Larger States’, in terms of annual incremental performance, Uttar Pradesh, Assam & Telangana are the top three ranking states.
  • Among the ‘Smaller States’, Mizoram and Meghalaya registered the maximum annual incremental progress.
  • Among UTs, Delhi, followed by Jammu and Kashmir, showed the best incremental performance.
  • Similar Links - Asia-Pacific Personalised Health Index

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1785506
  2. http://social.niti.gov.in/hlt-ranking/?round=4

Good Governance Index 2021

Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa topped the Good Governance Index 2021 launched on the occasion of Good Governance Day (25th December).

  • Good Governance Index (GGI) is a nation-wide comparative study of States on governance which is carried out by the Government of India.
  • GGI was prepared by the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG), Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions.
  • This index is a composite rank score covering 10 sectors and 58 indicators especially those pertaining to welfare and infrastructure at the Union, State and District levels.
  • The sectors of GGI 2020-21 are
    1. Agriculture and Allied Sectors,
    2. Commerce & Industries,
    3. Human Resource Development,
    4. Public Health,
    5. Public Infrastructure & Utilities,
    6. Economic Governance,
    7. Social Welfare & Development,
    8. Judicial & Public Security,
    9. Environment, and
    10. Citizen-Centric Governance.
  • The GGI 2020-21 categorises States and UTs into 4 categories.

Category

Top ranking State

Group A States

Gujarat

Group B States

Madhya Pradesh

North-East and Hill States

Himachal Pradesh

Union Territories

Delhi

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1785140
  2. https://government.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/governance/good-governance-index-2021-gujarat-tops-composite-ranking-followed-by-maharashtra-and-goa-delhi-top-ut/88514248

Garima Greh Scheme

The Madras High Court has asked the Union Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment to extend Garima Greh scheme to entire LGBTQIA+ community, not just transgenders.

  • Currently, the scheme provides a secure living space and care to only those persons who fall under the category of ‘transgender persons’.
  • The main aim of Garima Greh is to provide shelter to transgender persons with basic amenities like food, medical care and recreational facilities.
  • Besides, it will provide support for the capacity-building/skill development of Transgender persons.
  • The Centre had provided 100% financial assistance for setting up such shelters in 12 States.
  • Related Links - Swadhar Greh Scheme

Reference

  1. https://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-tamilnadu/extend-garima-greh-scheme-to-entire-lgbtqia-community-hc/article38052420.ece
  2. https://www.livelaw.in/amp/top-stories/madras-high-court-garima-greh-scheme-for-entire-lgbtqia-transgenders-media-press-draft-glossary-for-addressing-community-188446
  3. https://transgender.dosje.gov.in/docs/GarimaGrehGuidleines.pdf

Ethanol Blended Petrol Programme

During Ethanol Supply Year (ESY) 2020-21, 302.30 crore litre of Ethanol has been procured by OMCs for blending purpose till 30.11.2021.

Ethanol is an agro-based product, mainly produced by the fermentation of the sugars, namely molasses.

  • Launched in 2003, the Ethanol Blending Programme (EBP) sought to promote the use of alternative and environment friendly fuels and to reduce import dependency for energy requirements.
  • EBP seeks to achieve blending of Ethanol with motor sprit with a view to
    1. Reduce pollution,
    2. Conserve foreign exchange and
    3. Increase value addition in the sugar industry enabling them to clear cane price arrears of farmers.
  • Implementation - Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoP&NG)
  • Since 2019, this programme is being implemented in the whole of India except UTs of Andaman Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands wherein OMCs sell petrol blended with 10% ethanol.

The Government has reduced the GST rate on ethanol meant for EBP Programme from 18% to 5%.

  • Procurement - OMCs are to procure ethanol from domestic sources.
  • OMCs are advised to continue according priority of ethanol from sugarcane juice/sugar/sugar syrup; B heavy molasses; C heavy molasses; and Damaged Food grains/other sources, in that order.
  • To increase production of fuel grade ethanol and to achieve blending targets, the Govt of India has allowed use of maize and rice with FCI.
  • Targets - Currently, 8.5% of ethanol is blended with petrol in India.
  • National Policy on Biofuels 2018 has 10% blending target for mixing ethanol with petrol by 2022 & 20% blending target by 2030.
  • To facilitate achieving of new blending targets, a "grid” which networks distilleries to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) depots and details quantities to be supplied has been worked out.
  • Related Links - Ethanol Blending, Ethanol Blended Petrol

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1784483
  2. https://dfpd.gov.in/ebpProgramme_C.htm
  3. https://vikaspedia.in/energy/policy-support/renewable-energy-1/biofuels/ethanol-blended-petrol-programme
  4. https://mopng.gov.in/en/refining/ethanol-blended-petrol

Biodiesel Blending Programme

  • Minister of Petroleum & Natural Gas remotely flagged off the first supply of Used Cooking Oil (UCO) based Biodiesel blended Diesel under the EOI Scheme from Indian Oil’s Tikrikalan Terminal, Delhi.
  • Ministry of Finance has reduced the GST rate on biodiesel - which is sold to OMCs for blending with diesel - from 12% to 5%.
  • About - Launched in 2005 by the  MoP&NG, the Biodiesel Blending Programme (BBP) seeks to achieve blending of Biodiesel with diesel.
  • Biodiesel is produced from Used Cooking Oil (UCO). It is marketed by OMCs and other agencies.
  • OMCs are to purchase Biodiesel (B100), meeting the fuel quality standard prescribed by BIS for blending with High Speed Diesel (HSD) to the extent of 5% at identified purchase centres across the country.
  • Implementation - Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoP&NG)
  • Targets - Currently, less than 0.1% of biodiesel is blended into diesel.
  • National Policy on Biofuels 2018 represents a target of 5% of blending biodiesel in diesel by 2030.
  • Availability of biodiesel has been low in the last few years due to the increase of price and non-availability of feedstock for biodiesel.

Biofuel

  • Biofuels are a blend of substances that are obtained from biomass.
  • They can be converted directly into liquid fuels that can be used as transportation fuels.
  • The two most common kinds of biofuels in use are ethanol and biodiesel and they both represent the first generation of biofuel technology.
    1. Ethanol is renewable and made from many kinds of plants.
    2. Biodiesel is produced by combining alcohol with new and used vegetable oils, animal fats or recycled cooking grease.
  • Related Links - National Policy on Biofuels 2018, Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) scheme

Reference

  1. https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1784483
  2. http://petroleum.nic.in/sites/default/files/biofuels.pdf
  3. https://auto.economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/oil-and-lubes/blending-of-biodiesel-in-diesel-is-less-than-0-1-pc-centre/85002213
  4. https://www.republicworld.com/india-news/general-news/biodiesel-blending-target-in-diesel-and-ethanol-in-petrol-to-increase-by-up-to-20-percent-by-2030.html
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